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AS/NZS 4600:2018

[Current]

Cold-formed steel structures

Included in NCC Primary References Set
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Sets out minimum requirements for the design of structural members cold-formed to shape from carbon or low-alloy steel sheet, strip, plate or bar not more than 25 mm in thickness and used for load-carrying purposes in buildings.
Published: 15/05/2018
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Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
Header
About this publication
Preface
1 Scope and general
1.1 Scope
1.2 Normative references
1.3 Definitions
1.4 Notation
1.5 Materials
1.5.1 Structural steel
1.5.1.1 Applicable steels
1.5.1.2 Strength increase resulting from cold-forming
1.5.1.3 Effect of welding
1.5.1.4 Ductility
1.5.1.5 Acceptance of steels
1.5.1.6 Unidentified steel
1.5.2 Design stresses
1.5.3 Fasteners and electrodes
1.5.3.1 Steel bolts, nuts and washers
1.5.3.2 Welding consumables
1.5.3.3 Screws
1.5.3.4 Blind rivets
1.6 Design requirements
1.6.1 Actions and combination of actions
1.6.2 Structural analysis and design
1.6.3 Design capacity
1.6.4 Earthquake design
1.6.4.1 For Australia
1.6.4.2 For New Zealand and limited application in Australia
1.6.4.2.1 General
1.6.4.2.2 Structural ductility factor
1.6.4.2.3 Special studies
1.6.4.2.4 Structural performance factor
1.6.5 Durability
1.6.5.1 General
1.6.5.2 Corrosion protection
2 Elements
2.1 Section properties
2.1.1 General
2.1.2 Design procedures
2.1.2.1 Full section properties
2.1.2.2 Effective section properties
2.1.2.3 Location of reduced width
2.1.3 Dimensional limits
2.1.3.1 Maximum flat-width-to-thickness ratios for use with the effective width method
2.1.3.2 Flange curling
2.1.3.3 Shear lag effects (usually short spans supporting concentrated loads)
2.1.3.4 Maximum web depth-to-thickness ratio
2.2 Effective widths of stiffened elements
2.2.1 Uniformly compressed stiffened elements
2.2.1.1 General
2.2.1.2 Effective width for capacity calculations
2.2.1.3 Effective width for deflection calculations
2.2.2 Uniformly compressed stiffened elements with circular or non-circular holes
2.2.2.1 General
2.2.2.2 Effective width for capacity calculations
2.2.2.2.1 For circular holes
2.2.2.2.2 For non-circular holes
2.2.2.3 Effective width for deflection calculations
2.2.3 Stiffened elements with stress gradient
2.2.3.1 General
2.2.3.2 Effective width for capacity calculations
2.2.3.3 Effective width for deflection calculations
2.2.4 Channel-section webs with holes and with stress gradient
2.2.4.1 General
2.2.4.2 Capacity calculations
2.2.4.3 Deflection calculations
2.2.5 Uniformly compressed elements restrained by intermittent connections
2.2.5.1 General
2.2.5.2 Capacity calculations
2.2.5.3 Deflection calculations
2.3 Effective widths of unstiffened elements
2.3.1 Uniformly compressed unstiffened elements
2.3.1.1 General
2.3.1.2 Effective width for capacity calculations
2.3.1.3 Effective width for deflection calculations
2.3.2 Unstiffened elements and edge stiffeners with stress gradient
2.3.2.1 General
2.3.2.2 Effective width for capacity calculations
2.3.2.3 Effective width for deflection calculations
2.4 Effective widths of uniformly compressed elements with an edge stiffener
2.4.1 General
2.4.2 Effective width for capacity calculations
2.4.3 Effective width for deflection calculations
2.5 Effective widths of uniformly compressed stiffened elements with one intermediate stiffener
2.5.1 General
2.5.2 Effective width for capacity calculations
2.5.3 Effective width for deflection calculations
2.6 Effective widths of uniformly compressed stiffened elements with multiple intermediate stiffener
2.6.1 Determination of effective width
2.6.2 Specific case: ‘n’ identical stiffeners, equally spaced
2.6.2.1 Capacity calculation
2.6.2.2 Deflection calculation
2.6.3 General case: Arbitrary stiffener size, location and number
2.6.3.1 Capacity calculation
2.6.3.2 Deflection calculation
2.7 Effective widths of uniformly compressed edge-stiffened elements with intermediate stiffeners
2.8 Arched compression elements
3 Members
3.1 General
3.2 Members subject to axial tension
3.2.1 Design for axial tension
3.2.2 Nominal section capacity
3.2.3 Distribution of forces
3.2.3.1 End connections providing uniform force distribution
3.2.3.2 End connections providing non-uniform force distribution
3.3 Members subject to bending
3.3.1 Bending moment
3.3.2 Nominal section moment capacity
3.3.2.1 General
3.3.2.2 Based on initiation of yielding
3.3.2.3 Based on inelastic reserve capacity
3.3.3 Nominal member moment capacity
3.3.3.1 General
3.3.3.2 Members subject to lateral buckling
3.3.3.2.1 Open section members
3.3.3.2.2 Closed box members
3.3.3.3 Members subject to distortional buckling
3.3.3.4 Beams having one flange through-fastened to sheeting
3.3.3.5 Beams having one flange fastened to a standing seam roof or clip-fixed deck system
3.3.4 Shear
3.3.4.1 Shear capacity of webs without holes
3.3.4.2 Shear capacity of channel-section webs with holes
3.3.5 Combined bending and shear
3.3.6 Bearing
3.3.6.1 Design for bearing
3.3.6.2 Bearing without holes
3.3.6.3 Web crippling strength of channel-section webs with holes
3.3.7 Combined bending and bearing
3.3.8 Stiffeners
3.3.8.1 Transverse stiffeners
3.3.8.2 Bearing stiffeners in channel-section flexural members
3.3.8.3 Shear stiffeners
3.3.8.4 Non-conforming stiffeners
3.4 Concentrically loaded compression members
3.4.1 General
3.4.2 Singly-symmetric sections [see Figure 1.3(E)(c)] subject to distortional buckling
3.4.3 Columns with one flange through-fastened to sheeting
3.5 Combined axial compression or tension, and bending
3.5.1 Combined axial compression and bending
3.5.2 Combined axial tension and bending
3.6 Cylindrical tubular members
3.6.1 General
3.6.2 Bending
3.6.3 Compression
3.6.4 Combined bending and compression
3.7 Combined bending and torsional loading
4 Structural assemblies
4.1 Built-up sections
4.1.1 Flexural members composed of two channels
4.1.2 Compression members composed of two sections in contact
4.1.3 Cover plates, sheets or non-integral stiffeners in compression
4.2 Mixed systems
4.3 Lateral restraints
4.3.1 General
4.3.2 Symmetrical beams and columns
4.3.2.1 General
4.3.2.2 Restraint against lateral deflection
4.3.2.3 Restraint against twist rotation
4.3.2.4 Parallel restrained members
4.3.2.5 Restraint against lateral rotation
4.3.3 Channel- and Z-section beams
4.3.3.1 General
4.3.3.2 One flange connected to sheeting and subjected to wind uplift
4.3.3.3 Neither flange connected to sheeting or connected to sheeting with concealed fasteners
4.4 Wall studs and wall stud assemblies
5 Connections
5.1 General
5.2 Welded connections
5.2.1 General
5.2.2 Butt welds
5.2.2.1 Tension or compression
5.2.2.2 Shear
5.2.3 Fillet welds
5.2.3.1 General
5.2.3.2 Longitudinal loading
5.2.3.3 Transverse loading
5.2.3.4 Longitudinal and transverse loading
5.2.4 Arc spot welds (puddle welds)
5.2.4.1 General
5.2.4.2 Shear
5.2.4.3 Tearout
5.2.4.4 Tension
5.2.5 Arc seam welds
5.2.5.1 General
5.2.5.2 Shear
5.2.5.3 Tearout
5.2.6 Flare welds
5.2.6.1 General
5.2.6.2 Shear
5.2.7 Resistance welds
5.3 Bolted connections
5.3.1 General
5.3.2 Tearout
5.3.3 Net section tension
5.3.4 Bearing
5.3.4.1 General
5.3.4.2 Bearing capacity without considering bolt hole deformation
5.3.4.3 Bearing capacity at a bolt hole deformation of 6 mm
5.3.5 Bolts
5.3.5.1 Bolt in shear
5.3.5.2 Bolt in tension
5.3.5.3 Bolt subject to combined shear and tension
5.4 Screwed connections
5.4.1 General
5.4.2 Screwed connections in shear
5.4.2.1 General
5.4.2.2 Minimum spacing and edge distance
5.4.2.3 Tension in the connected part
5.4.2.4 Tilting and hole bearing
5.4.2.5 Connection shear as limited by end distance
5.4.2.6 Screws in shear
5.4.3 Screwed connections in tension
5.4.3.1 Minimum edge distance
5.4.3.2 Pull-out and pull-over (pull-through)
5.4.3.3 Screws in tension
5.4.3.4 Screwed connections subject to combined shear and pull-over
5.4.3.5 Screwed connections subject to combined shear and pull-out
5.4.3.6 Screws subject to combined shear and tension
5.5 Power-actuated fasteners (PAFs)
5.5.1 General
5.5.2 Minimum spacing, edge and end distances
5.5.3 Power-actuated fasteners in tension
5.5.3.1 General
5.5.3.2 PAF in tension
5.5.3.3 Pull-out
5.5.3.4 Pull-over
5.5.4 Power-actuated fasteners in shear
5.5.4.1 General
5.5.4.2 Shear strength
5.5.4.3 Bearing and tilting strength
5.5.4.4 Pull-out strength
5.5.4.5 Net section rupture
5.5.4.6 Shear capacity limited by edge distance
5.5.5 Combined shear and tension
5.6 Blind riveted connections
5.6.1 General
5.6.2 Riveted connections in shear
5.6.2.1 Minimum spacing and edge distance
5.6.2.2 Tension in the connected part
5.6.2.3 Tilting and hole bearing
5.6.2.4 Connection shear as limited by tearout
5.6.2.5 Rivets in shear
5.7 Rupture
5.7.1 Shear rupture
5.7.2 Tension rupture
5.7.3 Block shear rupture
5.8 Other connections using any type of fasteners
6 Fatigue
6.1 General
6.1.1 Requirements
6.1.2 Definitions
6.1.3 Notation
6.1.4 Method
6.1.5 Thickness effect
6.2 Calculation of maximum stresses and stress range
6.3 Detail categories for classified details
6.4 Fatigue assessment
6.4.1 Constant stress range
6.4.2 Variable stress range
7 Direct strength method
7.1 General requirements
7.1.1 General
7.1.2 Pre-qualified members
7.1.3 Elastic buckling
7.1.4 Deflection calculation
7.2 Members
7.2.1 Design of compression members
7.2.1.1 General
7.2.1.2 Flexural, torsional or flexural-torsional buckling
7.2.1.2.1 Compression members without holes
7.2.1.2.2 Compression members with holes
7.2.1.3 Local buckling
7.2.1.3.1 Compression members without holes
7.2.1.3.2 Compression members with holes
7.2.1.4 Distortional buckling
7.2.1.4.1 Compression members without holes
7.2.1.4.2 Compression members with holes
7.2.2 Design of members subject to bending
7.2.2.1 General
7.2.2.2 Lateral-torsional buckling
7.2.2.2.1 General
7.2.2.2.2 Beams without holes
7.2.2.2.3 Beams with holes
7.2.2.3 Local buckling
7.2.2.3.1 General
7.2.2.3.2 Beams without holes
7.2.2.3.3 Beams with holes
7.2.2.4 Distortional buckling
7.2.2.4.1 General
7.2.2.4.2 Beams without holes
7.2.2.4.3 Beams with holes
7.2.3 Design of members subject to shear, and combined bending and shear
7.2.3.1 General
7.2.3.2 Beams without transverse web stiffeners
7.2.3.3 Beams with transverse web stiffeners
7.2.3.4 Beams with holes in the web
7.2.3.5 Combined bending and shear
7.2.4 Design of members subject to combined axial compression and bending
7.2.5 Design of members subject to combined axial tension and bending
8 Testing
8.1 Testing for determining material properties
8.1.1 Testing of unformed steel
8.1.2 Compression testing
8.1.3 Testing of full sections
8.1.4 Testing of flat coupons of formed members
8.1.4.1 Assessment of strength increase
8.1.4.2 Design properties
8.1.5 Testing for determining section properties
8.1.6 Testing of single-point fastener connections
8.2 Testing for assessment or verification
8.2.1 General
8.2.2 Applications
8.2.2.1 Prototype
8.2.2.2 Strength prediction model
8.3 Coefficient of variation of structural characteristics
8.3.1 Prototype
8.3.2 Strength prediction model
8.4 Design values
8.4.1 Prototype
8.4.2 Strength prediction model
8.4.2.1 General method
8.4.2.2 Simplified method
9 Fire design
9.1 Requirements
9.2 Definitions
9.3 Determination of the period of structural adequacy
9.4 Elevated temperature mechanical and thermal properties
9.4.1 General
9.4.2 Variation of yield stress with temperature
9.4.3 Variation of modulus of elasticity with temperature
9.4.4 Variation of stress-strain relationship with temperature
9.4.5 Variation of specific heat with temperature
9.4.6 Variation of thermal conductivity with temperature
9.4.7 Variation of relative thermal elongation with temperature
9.5 Determination of member capacities at elevated temperatures
9.5.1 Members subject to uniform temperature distributions
9.5.2 Members subject to non-uniform temperature distributions
9.6 Determination of limiting temperature
9.7 Determination of temperature-time relationships for protected members
9.8 Determination of PSA from the standard fire test
9.9 Connections
Appendix A
Appendix B
B1 General
B2 First order elastic analysis
B3 Second order elastic analysis
B4 Advanced analysis
Appendix C
C1 Scope
C2 Protection against corrosion
C2.1 Members to be protected
C2.2 Protective coating
C2.3 Members made from uncoated steel
C2.4 Members made from coated steel
C3 Protection during transport, handling and storage
C3.1 General
C3.2 Transport and handling
C3.3 Storage
C4 Repairs to coatings
Appendix D
D1 Members in compression
D1.1 Global buckling stresses
D1.1.1 Compression members without holes
D1.1.1.1 Sections not subject to torsional or flexural-torsional buckling
D1.1.1.2 Doubly- or singly-symmetric sections (see Figures 1.3E(a) and (c)) subject to torsional or flexural-torsional buckling
D1.1.1.3 Point-symmetric sections (see Figure 1.3(E)(b))
D1.1.1.4 Non-symmetric sections (see Figure 1.3(E)(d))
D1.1.2 Compression members with holes
D1.1.2.1 Sections not subject to torsional or flexural-torsional buckling
D1.1.2.2 Doubly- or singly-symmetric sections [see Figures 1.3(E)(a) and (c)] subject to torsional or flexural-torsional buckling
D1.1.2.3 Point-symmetric sections [see Figure 1.3(E)(b)]
D1.1.2.4 Non-symmetric sections [see Figure 1.3(E)(d)]
D1.2 Distortional buckling stresses
D1.2.1 Compression members without holes
D1.2.1.1 General channels in compression
D1.2.1.2 Simple lipped channels in compression
D1.2.2 Compression members with holes
D1.3 Local buckling stresses
D1.3.1 Compression members without holes
D1.3.2 Compression members with holes
D2 Members in bending
D2.1 Global buckling moments
D2.1.1 Members in bending without holes
D2.1.1.1 General
D2.1.1.2 Singly-, doubly- and point-symmetric sections, see Figures 1.3(E)(a), (b) and (c)
D2.1.1.3 Point-symmetric Z-sections
D2.1.2 Members in bending with holes
D2.2 Distortional buckling stresses
D2.2.1 Members in bending without holes
D2.2.2 Members in bending with holes
D2.3 Local buckling stresses
D2.3.1 Members in bending without holes
D2.3.2 Members in bending with holes
D3 Members in shear
Appendix E
E1 Shear centre distance (m), torsion constant (J) and warping constant (Iw)
E2 Monosymmetry section constants
Appendix F
F1 Scope
F2 Material
F3 Shear test
F3.1 General
F3.2 Apparatus
F3.3 Test specimen
F3.4 Procedure
F4 Cross-tension test
F4.1 General
F4.2 Apparatus
F4.3 Test specimen
F4.4 Procedure
F5 Report
Appendix G
G1 Cold-formed steel structural members in loadbearing walls
G1.1 General
G1.2 Member compression capacity
G1.3 Section moment capacity
G1.4 Moment
G1.5 Interaction of compression and bending
G1.6 Direct strength method
G1.7 Local buckling capacity
G1.8 At mid-height
G1.9 At support
G1.10 At mid-height
G1.11 At support
G2 Cold-formed steel structural members in floors
G2.1 General
G2.2 Direct Strength Method
Cited references in this standard
[Current]
ISO metric hexagon nuts, Part 1: Style 1 — Product grades A and B
[Current]
Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloy steel, Part 1: Bolts, screws and studs
[Withdrawn]
Self-drilling screws for the building and construction industries — Corrosion resistance requirements
[Current]
Self-drilling screws for the building and construction industries, Part 1: General requirements and mechanical properties
[Current]
Design and installation of metal roof and wall cladding, Part 1: Metal
Content history
[Superseded]
DR AS/NZS 4600:2017