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AS 4084-2012

[Pending Revision]

Steel storage racking

This Standard sets out minimum requirements for the design, fabrication and erection tolerances, test methods, operation and maintenance of steel storage racking in the limit states method.
Published: 29/02/2012
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Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
Header
About this publication
Preface
1 Scope and general
1.1 Scope
1.2 Normative references
1.3 Definitions
1.4 Notation
1.5 Use of alternative materials or methods
1.6 General requirements for racking installations
1.7 Tolerances and clearances
1.7.1 Finished tolerances in unloaded condition
1.7.2 Unit load operating clearances
2 Actions
2.1 General
2.2 Permanent actions
2.3 Variable actions
2.3.1 General
2.3.2 Unit loads to be stored
2.3.3 Vertical placement actions
2.3.3.1 General
2.3.3.2 Goods placed with mechanical equipment
2.3.3.3 Goods placed by hand
2.3.4 Horizontal placement actions
2.3.4.1 General
2.3.4.2 Effects of operational methods
2.3.4.3 Application of the horizontal placement action in the down-aisle direction
2.3.4.4 Application of the horizontal placement action in the cross-aisle direction
2.3.5 Actions from rack-guided equipment
2.3.6 Floor and walkway actions
2.3.7 Actions arising from installation or repair
2.4 Accidental actions
2.4.1 General
2.4.2 Accidental vertical actions
2.4.3 Accidental horizontal actions
2.5 Wind actions
2.6 Seismic actions
2.7 Action combinations
2.7.1 General
2.7.2 Combination of actions for ultimate limit states
2.7.2.1 Analysis in the down-aisle direction
2.7.2.2 Analysis in the cross-aisle direction
2.7.3 Combination of actions for serviceability limit states
2.7.4 Action factors
2.7.5 Stability against overturning
3 Structural analysis
3.1 General
3.2 Design criteria
3.2.1 Actions and action combinations
3.2.2 Design procedure
3.2.3 Action combinations for analysis
3.3 Global structural analysis
3.3.1 Methods of structural analysis
3.3.2 Design imperfections and eccentricities
3.3.2.1 Frame (sway) imperfections in unbraced frames
3.3.2.2 Frame (sway) imperfections in braced frames
3.3.2.3 Imperfections in racking partially braced in the down-aisle direction
3.3.2.4 Member imperfections
3.3.2.4.1 Uprights
3.3.2.4.2 Bracing member
3.3.2.5 Local and distortional buckling imperfections (GMNIAs only)
3.3.2.6 Eccentricities
3.3.2.6.1 Bracing eccentricities
3.3.2.6.2 Eccentricities between beams and uprights
3.3.3 Basis of structural analysis
3.3.4 Analysis of braced and unbraced racking in the down-aisle direction
3.3.4.1 General
3.3.4.2 Moment-rotation characteristics of beam end connectors
3.3.4.3 Moment-rotation characteristics of the connection to the floor
3.3.5 Analysis of braced and unbraced racking in the cross-aisle direction
3.3.6 Methods of analysis for stability in the down-aisle direction
3.3.7 Simplified methods of analysis for stability in the cross-aisle direction
3.3.8 Frame classification
3.3.9 Design actions
4 Design procedures
4.1 General
4.2 Design criteria
4.2.1 General
4.2.2 Design based on LA or GNA structural analysis
4.2.2.1 Design based on LA structural analysis considering the down-aisle direction
4.2.2.2 Design based on GNA structural analysis considering the down-aisle direction
4.2.2.3 Design based on LA structural analysis considering the cross-aisle direction
4.2.2.4 Design based on GNA structural analysis considering the cross-aisle direction
4.2.2.5 Effective length for torsional buckling of uprights
4.2.3 Design based on GMNIAc structural analysis
4.2.4 Design based on GMNIAs structural analysis
4.2.5 Serviceability criteria
5 Design of cold-formed steel uprights and pallet beams
5.1 General
5.2 Uprights
5.2.1 Section properties
5.2.2 Flexural capacity
5.2.3 Axial capacity
5.2.3.1 Effective area
5.2.3.2 Sections not subject to flexural-torsional buckling
5.2.3.3 Doubly-symmetric or singly-symmetric sections subject to torsional or flexural-torsional buckling
5.2.3.4 Singly-symmetric sections subject to distortional buckling
5.2.4 Combined compression and bending
5.3 Pallet beam
6 Connections and base plates
6.1 General
6.2 Pallet beam connections
6.3 Base plates and anchorage
6.3.1 General
6.3.2 Base plates
6.3.2.1 Effective area
6.3.2.2 Base plate supporting axially loaded uprights
6.3.2.3 Combined axial action and bending moment without anchor bolts
6.3.2.4 Combined axial action and bending moment with anchor bolts
6.4 Design of base plate anchorage
6.4.1 General
6.4.2 Design of anchors
6.4.2.1 General
6.4.2.2 Tensile forces
6.4.2.3 Shear forces
6.4.2.4 Combined tensile and shear forces
6.5 Design of frame spacers
6.6 Upright splices
7 Test methods
7.1 Introduction
7.1.1 General
7.1.2 Testing apparatus and fixtures
7.1.3 Instrumentation
7.1.4 Reduction and presentation of test data
7.2 Evaluation of tests for determining structural performance
7.2.1 Interpolation of test results
7.2.1.1 Corrections to test results
7.2.1.2 Corrections to failure loads or moments
7.2.1.3 Derivation of characteristic values
7.2.1.4 Characteristic values for a family of tests
7.2.2 Derivation of design capacity and procedure to define stiffness and curves
7.2.2.1 Design capacity
7.2.2.2 Procedure to derive a bi-linear curve and stiffness
7.2.2.3 Procedure to derive a multi-linear curve
7.3 Tests on uprights
7.3.1 Stub column tests
7.3.1.1 Test specimen and procedure
7.3.1.2 Evaluation of test results
7.3.2 Compression tests on uprights—Determination of buckling curves
7.3.2.1 Purpose of test
7.3.2.2 Test arrangement
7.3.2.3 Test method
7.3.2.4 Corrections to observations
7.3.2.5 Derivation of the column curve
7.3.3 Test for the effects of distortional buckling
7.3.3.1 Purpose of the test
7.3.3.2 Test arrangement and method
7.3.3.3 Derivation of the test results
7.3.4 Bending tests on upright sections
7.3.4.1 Purpose of the test
7.3.4.2 Test arrangement
7.3.4.3 Test method
7.3.4.4 Corrections to the observations
7.3.4.5 Derivation of results
7.4 Pallet beam tests
7.4.1 Simply supported pallet beam tests
7.4.1.1 General
7.4.1.2 Test set-up
7.4.1.3 Test procedure
7.4.1.4 Evaluation of test results
7.4.2 Bending tests on beams
7.4.2.1 Purpose of test
7.4.2.2 Test arrangement
7.4.2.3 Test method
7.4.2.4 Corrections to observations
7.4.2.5 Derivation of test results
7.5 Pallet beam to upright connection tests
7.5.1 Cantilever test
7.5.1.1 General
7.5.1.2 Test set-up
7.5.1.3 Test procedure
7.5.1.4 Corrections to the observations
7.5.1.5 Evaluation of test results
7.5.2 Portal test
7.5.2.1 General
7.5.2.2 Test set-up
7.5.2.3 Test procedure
7.5.2.4 Evaluation of test results
7.5.2.5 Corrections to the observations
7.5.2.6 Derivation of test results
7.5.3 Looseness tests on beam end connectors
7.5.3.1 Purpose of the test
7.5.3.2 Test arrangement
7.5.3.3 Test method
7.5.3.4 Corrections to the observations
7.5.3.5 Derivation of test results
7.5.4 Shear tests on beam end connectors and connector locks
7.5.4.1 Purpose of the test
7.5.4.2 Test arrangement
7.5.4.3 Test method
7.5.4.4 Corrections to the observations
7.5.4.5 Derivation of test results
7.6 Upright frame test
7.6.1 General
7.6.2 Horizontal load in the direction perpendicular to the upright frame
7.6.2.1 Test set-up for symmetrical loading condition
7.6.2.2 Test procedure for symmetrical loading condition
7.6.2.3 Evaluation of test results for symmetrical load condition
7.6.2.4 Test set-up and test procedure for unsymmetrical load condition
7.6.3 Horizontal load in the direction parallel to the plane of upright frame
7.6.3.1 Test set-up
7.6.3.2 Test procedure
7.6.3.3 Evaluation of test results
7.7 Tests for shear stiffness of upright frames
7.7.1 Shear test
7.7.1.1 Purpose of the test
7.7.1.2 Test arrangement
7.7.1.3 Method of test
7.7.1.4 Corrections to the observations
7.7.1.5 Derivation of the test results
7.7.2 Bending and shear test
7.7.2.1 General
7.7.2.2 Purpose of the test
7.7.2.3 Test arrangement
7.7.2.4 Method of test
7.7.2.5 Corrections to the observations
7.7.2.6 Derivation of the test results
7.8 Tests on upright splices
7.8.1 Purpose of the test
7.8.2 Test arrangement
7.8.3 Test method
7.8.4 Corrections to observations
7.8.5 Derivation of results
7.9 Tests on floor connections
7.9.1 Purpose of the test
7.9.2 Test arrangement
7.9.3 Test method
7.9.4 Corrections to observations
7.9.5 Derivation of results
7.10 Charpy type impact tests
7.10.1 Purpose of the test
7.10.2 Test method
7.10.3 Derivation of the transition temperature
8 Operation and maintenance of adjustable pallet racking
8.1 General
8.1.1 Safety management
8.1.2 Working load limits
8.1.3 Alteration of the racking installation
8.1.4 Operating instructions
8.1.5 Hazardous situations
8.1.6 Damage report
8.2 Inspections
8.3 Damage due to impact
8.3.1 General
8.3.2 Uprights
8.3.3 Bracing
8.3.4 Beams
8.3.5 Connectors
8.3.6 Connector safety lock
8.4 Out-of-plumb of racking
8.5 Damage classification and risk management
8.5.1 General
8.5.2 Acceptable damage (Green)
8.5.3 Hazardous damage (Amber risk)
8.5.4 Very serious damage (Red risk)
Appendix A
A1 General
A2 Linear elastic analysis
A3 Elastic critical load ratio
A4 Amplification factor
Appendix B
B1 Simplified equations for regular rack construction
B2 Additional bending moments due to pattern action
B3 Design moments
B4 Design actions in outer uprights
B5 Sample calculation
Appendix C
C1 General
C2 Global buckling of upright frames
C3 Shear stiffness of upright frame
C4 Amplification factor (β)
Bibliography
Cited references in this standard
[Current]
Structural design actions, Part 4: Earthquake actions in Australia
[Current]
Metallic materials — Tensile testing — Method of test at room temperature
[Current]
Fixed platforms, walkways, stairways and ladders — Design, construction and installation
[Current]
Steel Structures
[Current]
Structural design actions, Part 0: General principles
Content history
[Available Superseded]
DR AS 4084