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AS 3700:2018 Sup 1:2020

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Masonry structures — Commentary (Supplement 1 to AS 3700:2018)

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The objective of this Supplement is to provide commentary to assist in the interpretation and correct application of the provisions of AS 3700:2018, Masonry structures, by outlining the background to various requirements of the Standard.
Published: 24/01/2020
Pages: 84
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Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
C5 Design for durability
C5.1 Scope of section
C5.2 General
C5.3 Exposure environments
C5.4 Locations
C5.5 Masonry units
C5.6 Mortar
C5.7 Built-in components
C5.8 Grout
C5.9 Reinforcement and tendons
C5.10 References and bibliography
C5.10.1 References
C5.10.2 Bibliography
Header
About this publication
C6 Design for fire resistance
C6.1 General
C6.2 Fire-resistance levels
C6.3 Structural adequacy
C6.3.1 General
C6.3.2 Design of walls using tabulated values
C6.3.2.1 General
C6.3.2.2 Slenderness ratio
C6.3.3 Design of walls based on test results
C6.3.4 Isolated piers
C6.3.5 Minimum reinforcement
C6.3.6 Protection to reinforcement
C6.4 Integrity
C6.4.1 General
C6.4.2 Design from tabulated values
C6.4.3 Design based on test results
C6.5 Insulation
C6.5.1 General
C6.5.2 Material thickness of member
C6.5.3 Design of walls using tabulated values
C6.5.4 Design based on test results
C6.6 Recesses for services
C6.7 Chases
C6.8 Protection of structural steelwork
C6.9 References and bibliography
C6.9.1 References
C6.9.2 Bibliography
Preface
C7 Structural design of unreinforced masonry
C7.1 General
C7.2 General basis of design
C7.3 Design for members in compression
C7.3.1 General
C7.3.2 Basic compressive capacity
C7.3.3 Design by simple rules
C7.3.3.1 General
C7.3.3.2 Compression on uniform symmetrical members
C7.3.3.3 Reduction factor for slenderness and eccentricity (k)
C7.3.3.4 Simplified slenderness ratio (Srs)
C7.3.4 Design by refined calculation
C7.3.4.1 General
C7.3.4.2 Uniaxial bending and compression on uniform symmetrical members
C7.3.4.3 Slenderness ratio
C7.3.4.4 Effective eccentricity
C7.3.4.5 Reduction factor (k) for slenderness and eccentricity for refined calculation
C7.3.5 Concentrated loads
C7.3.5.1 General
C7.3.5.2 Dispersion of a concentrated load through the masonry
C7.3.5.3 Load capacity under a concentrated load
C7.3.5.4 Concentrated bearing factor (kb)
C7.4 Design for members in bending
C.7.4.1 General
C.7.4.2 Design for vertical bending
C7.4.3 Design for horizontal bending
C7.4.3.1 General
C7.4.3.2 Horizontal bending with tension stresses permitted
C7.4.3.3 Compressive stress on bed joints
C7.4.3.4 Perpend spacing factor (kp)
C7.4.4 Design for two-way bending
C7.4.4.1 General
C7.4.4.2 Lateral load capacity of masonry other than AAC
C7.4.4.3 Diagonal bending moment capacity
C7.4.4.4 Lateral load capacity of AAC masonry
C7.5 Design for members in shear
C7.5.1 Shear walls
C7.5.2 Two or more shear walls acting together
C7.5.3 Design for compression and in-plane lateral forces
C7.5.4 Shear capacity
C7.5.4.1 Horizontal planes
C7.5.4.2 Vertical planes
C7.5.5 Compressive stress on bed joints
C7.5.6 Shear connectors
C7.6 Design of masonry veneer walls
C7.6.1 General
C7.6.2 Wall ties with flexible structural backing
C7.6.3 Wall ties with stiff structural backing
C7.7 Design of cavity walls
C7.7.1 General
C7.7.2 Compressive load capacity with both leaves loaded
C7.7.3 Lateral bending capacity
C7.7.4 Wall ties
C7.8 Design of diaphragm walls
C7.8.1 General
C7.8.2 Lateral bending capacity
C7.8.3 Diaphragms
C7.9 References and bibliography
C7.9.1 References
C7.9.2 Bibliography
C1 Scope and general
C1.1 Scope
C1.2 Normative references
C1.3 Use of alternative materials or methods
C1.4 Information to be provided on documents
C1.4.1 General
C1.4.2 Provision for demolition
C1.5 Definitions
C1.5.1 Administrative definitions
C1.5.2 Technical definitions
C1.6 Notation
C1.7 Existing structures
C8 Structural design of reinforced masonry
C8.1 Scope of section
C8.2 Exclusions
C8.3 General basis of design
C8.4 General reinforcement requirement
C8.4.1 General
C8.4.2 Main reinforcement
C8.4.3 Secondary reinforcement
C8.4.4 Reinforcement detailing, cover and protection
C8.4.5 Close-spaced reinforcement for increased ductility in earthquakes
C8.4.6 Wide-spaced reinforcement
C8.5 Design of members in compression
C8.5.1 Basic compressive capacity
C8.5.2Concentrated loads
C8.6 Design of members in bending
C8.7 Design of walls for in-plane shear
C8.7.1 General
C8.7.2 Long walls
C8.7.3 Short walls
C.8.7.4 Stability
C8.8 Design of walls for out-of-plane shear
C8.9 Design of beams in shear
C8.10 Design of members in tension
C8.11 Design for combined loading
C8.11.1 Members in combined bending and compression
C8.11.2 Members in combined bending and tension
C8.12 References and bibliography
C8.12.1 References
C8.12.2 Bibliography
C2 Requirements for design
C2.1 Scope of section
C2.2 Aim
C2.3 General requirements
C2.4 Design requirements
C2.5 Serviceability, strength and stability
C2.5.1 General
C2.5.2 Design for serviceability
C2.5.3 Design for strength
C2.5.4 Design for stability
C2.6 Loads and load combinations
C2.6.1 Loads, and other forces and actions
C2.6.2 Design load combinations
C2.6.3 Design loads for lateral supporting members
C2.6.4 Design loads for connections to lateral supports
C2.7 Lateral support
C2.8 Other design requirements
C2.8.1 General
C2.8.2 Design for water penetration
C2.8.3 Design for accidental damage
C2.8.4 Masonry under construction
C2.9 Bibliography
C3 Design properties
C3.1 Scope of section
C3.2 Masonry units
C3.3 Masonry
C3.3.1 General
C3.3.2 Compressive strength
C.3.3 Flexural tensile strength
C3.3.4 Shear strength
C3.3.5 Shear factor
C3.3.6 Elastic properties of masonry
C3.4 Ties and accessories
C3.5 Grout
C3.6 Reinforcement
C3.7 Tendons
C3.8 References and bibliography
C3.8.1 References
C3.8.2 Bibliography
C4 General design aspects
C4.1 Scope of section
C4.2 Members of mixed construction
C4.3 Chases, holes and recesses
C4.4 Capacity reduction factors
C4.5 Cross-section properties
C4.5.1 Bedded thickness
C4.5.2 Effective width of compression faces and flanges
C4.5.3 Structural end of a masonry member
C4.5.4 Bedded area
C4.5.5 Combined cross-sectional area
C.4.5.6 Design cross-sectional area
C4.5.7 Grout area
C4.5.8 Section modulus and section moment of area
C4.5.9 Chases, holes and recesses
C4.6 Design for robustness
C4.6.1 General
C4.6.2 Robustness of walls
C4.6.3 Robustness of isolated piers and unreinforced piers
C4.7 Prevention of moisture penetration
C4.7.1 Cavities
C4.7.2 Weepholes
C4.7.3 Damp-proof courses (DPCs) and flashings
C4.7.4 Single leaf and solid walls
C4.8 Control joints
C4.8.1 General
C4.8.2 Contraction joints
C4.8.3 Expansion joints
C4.8.4 Articulation joints
C4.8.5 Detailing
C4.9 Mortar joints
C4.9.1 Thickness
C4.9.2 Finishing
C4.10 Wall ties
C4.11 Bonding, tying and supporting
C4.11.1 General
C4.11.2 Bonding with masonry header units
C4.11.3 Tying with connectors
C4.11.4 Fixing to supporting structures
C4.12 Stack bonded masonry
C4.12.1 Solid and cored unit masonry
C4.12.2 Hollow unit masonry
C4.13 Arches and lintels
C4.14 Interaction between masonry members and slabs, beams or columns
C4.15 Corbelling
C4.16 Attachment to face of walls
C4.17 References and bibliography
C4.17.1 References
C4.17.2 Bibliography
C9 Structural design of prestressed masonry
C9.1 Scope of section
C9.2 General basis of design
C9.3 Design criteria for prestressing tendons
C9.4 Design of members in compression
C9.5 Design of members in bending
C9.5.1 General
C9.5.2 Ultimate tensile stress in tendons
C9.5.3 Upper limit on tendon area
C9.5.4 Minimum bending strength
C9.6 Design of members in shear
C9.7 Design of members in tension
C9.8 Design for combined loading
C9.9 Design of anchorage zones
C9.10 References and bibliography
C9.10.1 References
C9.10.2 ibliography
C10 Design for earthquake actions
C10.1 Scope of section
C10.2 General design criteria
C10.2.1 General
C10.2.2 Structural ductility factor (μ) and structural performance factor (Sp)
C10.2.3 Structural elements
C10.2.4 Non-structural components
C10.2.5 Connections and wall anchorage
C10.3 Detailing masonry structures for earthquake loads
C10.3.1 General
C10.3.2 Fixing of cavity walls to supports
C10.4 Restrictions on the use of loadbearing unreinforced masonry
C10.5 References and bibliography
C10.5.1 References
C10.5.2 Bibliography
C11 Materials
C11.1 Scope of section
C11.2 Masonry
C11.3 Masonry units
C11.4 Mortar
C11.4.1 General
C11.4.2 Materials
C11.4.2.1 Cement and building lime
C11.4.2.2 Sand
C11.4.2.3 Water
C11.4.2.4 Admixtures
C11.4.3 Mortar durability
C11.4.4 Structural properties of mortar
C11.4.5 Mortar for reinforced or prestressed masonry
C11.5 Wall ties, connectors, accessories and lintels
C11.5.1 Wall ties
C11.5.2 Connectors and accessories
C11.5.3 Lintels
C11.6 Damp-proof courses (DPCs), flashings and weatherings
C11.7 Grout
C11.7.1 General
C11.7.2 Materials
C11.7.3 Strength
C11.8 Reinforcement and tendons
C11.8.1 Reinforcement
C11.8.2 Tendons
C11.8.3 Reinforcement embedded in mortar joints
C11.9 References and bibliography
C11.9.1 References
C11.9.2 Bibliography
C12 Construction
C12.1 Scope of section
C12.2 General
C12.3 Materials
C12.3.1 General
C12.3.2 Masonry units
C12.3.2.1 Moisture content
C12.3.2.2 Properties of units
C12.3.3 Mortar
C12.3.3.1 General
C12.3.3.2 Measurement of materials
C12.3.3.3 Mixing
C12.3.3.4 Age of mortar when used
C12.4 Workmanship
C12.4.1 Base course
C12.4.2 Mortar joints
C12.4.3 Movement control joints
C12.4.4 Bonding
C12.4.5 Cutting of units
C12.4.6 Holes and chases
C12.4.7 Building in
C12.4.8 Bolts and anchors
C12.4.9 Rate of construction
C12.4.10 Sections of masonry constructed at different rates or times
C12.4.11 Construction during adverse weather conditions
C12.4.12 Disturbance of new masonry
C12.4.13 Cavities in walls
C12.4.14 Weepholes
C12.4.15 Joint finishing
C12.4.16 Damp-proof course and flashing (DPC)
C12.4.17 Lintels
C12.5 Tolerances in masonry
C12.5.1 General
C12.5.2 Measurement of bow
C12.5.3 Reinforcement and tendons
C12.6 Site control
C12.6.1 General
C12.6.2 Verification of strength properties
C12.6.3 Verification of durability resistance
C12.6.4 Verification of mortar composition
C12.7 Additional site control of special masonry
C12.7.1 General
C12.7.2 Rate of sampling
C12.7.3 Target strength
C12.8 Grouted masonry
C12.8.1 Cleaning out
C12.8.2 Grouting
C12.8.3 Sampling and testing of grout
C12.9 Masonry under construction
C12.9.1 Temporary bracing
C12.9.2 Premature loading
C12.9.3 Physical damage
C12.9.4 Weather conditions
C12.10 Cleaning
C12.11 Testing of in situ masonry
C12.12 References and bibliography
C12.12.1 References
C12.12.2 Bibliography
Appendix CA
CA.1 Scope
CA.2 General
CA.3 Abnormal test results
CA.4 Mean
Appendix CB
Appendix CC
CC.1 Scope
CC.2 Number of specimens per sample
CC.3 Preparation of specimens
CC.4 Age at test
CC.5 Transportation
CC.6 Test apparatus
CC.7 Test procedure
CC.8 Calculation of test strength of the sample
CC.9 Reporting of results
Appendix CD
CD.1 Scope
CD.2 Number of specimens per sample
CD.3 Preparation of specimens
CD.4 Age at test
CD.5 Transportation
CD.6 Flexural strength by bond wrench test method
CD.7 Flexural strength by beam test
CD.7.1 Test procedure
CD.7.2 Calculation of flexural strength of specimen
CD.8 Calculation of test strength of the sample
CD.9 Reporting of results
CD.10 References
Appendix CE
CE.1 Scope
CE.2 General
CE.3 Sampling
CE.4 Apparatus
CE.5 Procedure
CE.6 Calculation of scratch index
CE.7 Reporting of results
CE.8 Bibliography
Appendix CF
Appendix CG
CG.1 General
CG.2 Preparation for testing
CG.3 Testing
Appendix CH
CH.1 Scope
CH.2 General
CH.3 Restriction on the use of type M1 mortars
CH.4 Masonry constructed of square-dressed natural stone units
CH.5 Design properties
CH.6 Construction
Appendix CI
CI.1 General
CI.2 The relationship between atmospheric corrosivity categories and durability class of masonry components
Cited references in this standard
Content history
[Current]