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AS 3700:2018


Masonry Structures

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Specifies minimum requirements for the design and construction of unreinforced, reinforced and prestressed masonry, including built-in components.
Published: 14/02/2018
Pages: 160
Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
About this publication
1 Scope and general
1.1 Scope
1.2 Normative references
1.3 Use of alternative materials or methods
1.4 Information to be provided on documents
1.4.1 General
1.4.2 Provision for demolition
1.5 Definitions
1.6 Notation
1.7 Existing structures
2 Requirements for design
2.1 Scope of section
2.2 Aim
2.3 General requirements
2.3.1 Durability
2.3.2 Fire resistance
2.3.3 Serviceability
2.3.4 Strength
2.3.5 Stability
2.4 Design requirements
2.4.1 Design for durability
2.4.2 Design for fire resistance
2.4.3 Design for serviceability
2.4.4 Design for strength
2.4.5 Design for stability
2.4.6 Design for earthquakes
2.4.7 Design for other requirements
2.5 Serviceability, strength and stability
2.5.1 General
2.5.2 Design for serviceability
2.5.3 Design for strength
2.5.4 Design for stability
2.6 Loads and load combinations
2.6.1 Loads, and other forces and actions Dead, live, wind, snow and earthquake loads Other forces and actions
2.6.2 Design load combinations
2.6.3 Design loads for lateral supporting members
2.6.4 Design loads for connections to lateral supports
2.7 Lateral support
2.8 Other design requirements
2.8.1 General
2.8.2 Design for water penetration
2.8.3 Design for accidental damage
2.8.4 Masonry under construction
3 Design properties
3.1 Scope of section
3.2 Masonry units
3.3 Masonry
3.3.1 General
3.3.2 Compressive strength
3.3.3 Flexural tensile strength
3.3.4 Shear strength
3.3.5 Shear factor
3.3.6 Elastic properties of masonry
3.4 Ties and accessories
3.5 Grout
3.6 Reinforcement
3.6.1 Strength
3.6.2 Modulus of elasticity
3.6.3 Stress-strain curves
3.7 Tendons
3.7.1 Strength
3.7.2 Modulus of elasticity
3.7.3 Stress-strain curves
3.7.4 Other properties
4 General design aspects
4.1 Scope of section
4.2 Members of mixed construction
4.3 Chases, holes and recesses
4.4 Capacity reduction factors
4.5 Cross-section properties
4.5.1 Bedded thickness
4.5.2 Effective width of compression faces and flanges
4.5.3 Structural end of a masonry member
4.5.4 Bedded area
4.5.5 Combined cross-sectional area
4.5.6 Design cross-sectional area
4.5.7 Grout area
4.5.8 Section modulus and second moment of area
4.5.9 Chases, holes and recesses
4.6 Design for robustness
4.6.1 General
4.6.2 Robustness of walls
4.6.3 Robustness of isolated reinforced and unreinforced masonry piers
4.7 Prevention of moisture penetration
4.7.1 Cavities
4.7.2 Weepholes
4.7.3 Damp-proof courses (DPCs) and flashings
4.7.4 Single-leaf and solid walls
4.8 Control joints
4.8.1 General
4.8.2 Contraction joints General Spacing
4.8.3 Expansion joints General Spacing
4.8.4 Articulation joints
4.8.5 Detailing
4.9 Mortar joints
4.9.1 Thickness
4.9.2 Finishing
4.10 Wall ties
4.11 Bonding, tying and supporting
4.11.1 General
4.11.2 Bonding with masonry header units
4.11.3 Tying with connectors Other than diaphragm walls and walls of geometric section Diaphragm walls and walls of geometric section
4.11.4 Fixing to supporting structures
4.12 Stack bonded masonry
4.12.1 Solid and cored unit masonry
4.12.2 Hollow unit masonry
4.13 Arches and lintels
4.14 Interaction between masonry members and slabs, beams or columns
4.15 Corbelling
4.15.1 Corbels normal to the plane of the wall
4.15.2 Corbels in the plane of the wall
4.16 Attachment to face of walls
5 Design for durability
5.1 Scope of section
5.2 General
5.3 Exposure environments
5.3.1 Severe marine
5.3.2 Marine
5.3.3 Industrial
5.3.4 Moderate
5.3.5 Mild General Mild-tropical Mild-temperate Mild-arid
5.4 Locations
5.4.1 Exterior
5.4.2 Exterior-coated
5.4.3 Interior
5.5 Masonry units
5.6 Mortar
5.7 Built-in components
5.8 Grout
5.9 Reinforcement and tendons
5.9.1 General
5.9.2 Reinforcement and tendons in grouted cavities and cores
5.9.3 Reinforcement and tendons embedded in mortar joints
5.9.4 Unbonded tendons in cavities and cores
5.9.5 Durability class for steel reinforcement and tendons
6 Design for fire resistance
6.1 General
6.2 Fire-resistance levels
6.3 Structural adequacy
6.3.1 General
6.3.2 Design of walls using tabulated values General Slenderness ratio
6.3.3 Design of walls based on test results
6.3.4 Isolated piers
6.3.5 Minimum reinforcement
6.3.6 Protection to reinforcement
6.4 Integrity
6.4.1 General
6.4.2 Design from tabulated values
6.4.3 Design based on test results
6.5 Insulation
6.5.1 General
6.5.2 Material thickness of member
6.5.3 Design of walls using tabulated values
6.5.4 Design based on test results
6.6 Recesses for services
6.7 Chases
6.7.1 General
6.7.2 The effect of chases on structural adequacy
6.7.3 The effect of chases on integrity and insulation
6.8 Protection of structural steelwork
7 Structural design of unreinforced masonry
7.1 General
7.2 General basis of design
7.3 Design for members in compression
7.3.1 General
7.3.2 Basic compressive capacity
7.3.3 Design by simple rules General Compression on uniform symmetrical members Reduction factor for slenderness and eccentricity (k) Simplified slenderness ratio (Srs)
7.3.4 Design by refined calculation General Uniaxial eccentric compression on uniform symmetrical members Slenderness ratio Effective eccentricity Reduction factor (k) for slenderness and eccentricity for refined calculation
7.3.5 Concentrated loads General Dispersion of a concentrated load through the masonry Load capacity under a concentrated load Concentrated bearing factor (kb)
7.4 Design for members in bending
7.4.1 General
7.4.2 Design for vertical bending
7.4.3 Design for horizontal bending General Horizontal bending with tension stresses permitted Compressive stress on bed joints Perpend spacing factor (kp)
7.4.4 Design for two-way bending General Lateral load capacity of masonry other than AAC Diagonal bending moment capacity Lateral load capacity of AAC masonry
7.5 Design for members in shear
7.5.1 Shear walls
7.5.2 Two or more shear walls acting together
7.5.3 Design for compression and in-plane lateral forces
7.5.4 Shear capacity Horizontal planes Vertical planes
7.5.5 Compressive stress on bed joints Loading from other than earthquake action Earthquake loading
7.5.6 Shear connectors
7.6 Design of masonry veneer walls
7.6.1 General
7.6.2 Wall ties with flexible structural backing
7.6.3 Wall ties with stiff structural backing
7.7 Design of cavity walls
7.7.1 General
7.7.2 Compressive load capacity with both leaves loaded
7.7.3 Lateral bending capacity
7.7.4 Wall ties
7.8 Design of diaphragm walls
7.8.1 General
7.8.2 Lateral bending capacity
7.8.3 Diaphragms
8 Structural design of reinforced masonry
8.1 Scope of section
8.2 Exclusions
8.3 General basis of design
8.4 General reinforcement requirement
8.4.1 General
8.4.2 Main reinforcement
8.4.3 Secondary reinforcement
8.4.4 Reinforcement detailing, cover and protection General Minimum bar spacing
8.4.5 Close-spaced reinforcement for increased ductility in earthquakes
8.4.6 Wide-spaced reinforcement
8.5 Design of members in compression
8.5.1 Basic compressive capacity
8.5.2 Concentrated loads General Dispersion of a concentrated load through a reinforced member Load capacity under a concentrated load Concentrated bearing factor (kb)
8.6 Design of members in bending
8.7 Design of walls for in-plane shear
8.7.1 General
8.7.2 Long walls
8.7.3 Short walls
8.7.4 Stability
8.8 Design of walls for out-of-plane shear
8.9 Design of beams in shear
8.10 Design of members in tension
8.11 Design for combined loading
8.11.1 Members in combined bending and compression
8.11.2 Members in combined bending and tension
9 Structural design of prestressed masonry
9.1 Scope of section
9.2 General basis of design
9.2.1 General
9.2.2 Additional requirements for strength
9.2.3 Additional requirements for serviceability
9.3 Design criteria for prestressing tendons
9.3.1 General Maximum initial prestress Loss of prestress
9.3.2 Immediate loss of prestress General Loss of prestress due to elastic deformation of masonry Loss of prestress due to friction Loss of prestress during anchoring
9.3.3 Time-dependent losses of prestress General Loss of prestress due to creep and moisture movements of the masonry Loss of prestress due to tendon relaxation Loss of prestress due to temperature effects
9.3.4 Close-spaced reinforcement for increased ductility in earthquakes
9.4 Design of members in compression
9.5 Design of members in bending
9.5.1 General
9.5.2 Ultimate tensile stress in tendons
9.5.3 Upper limit on tendon area
9.5.4 Minimum bending strength
9.6 Design of members in shear
9.7 Design of members in tension
9.8 Design for combined loading
9.8.1 Members in combined bending and compression
9.8.2 Members in combined bending and tension
9.9 Design of anchorage zones
10 Design for earthquake actions
10.1 Scope of section
10.2 General design criteria
10.2.1 General
10.2.2 Structural ductility factor (μ) and structural performance factor (Sp)
10.2.3 Structural elements
10.2.4 Non-structural components
10.2.5 Connections and wall anchorage
10.3 Detailing masonry structures for earthquake loads
10.3.1 General
10.3.2 Fixing of cavity walls to supports
10.4 Restrictions on the use of loadbearing unreinforced masonry
11 Materials
11.1 Scope of section
11.2 Masonry
11.3 Masonry units
11.4 Mortar
11.4.1 General
11.4.2 Materials Cement and building lime Sand Water Admixtures
11.4.3 Mortar durability
11.4.4 Structural properties of mortar
11.4.5 Mortar for reinforced or prestressed masonry
11.5 Wall ties, connectors, accessories and lintels
11.5.1 Wall ties
11.5.2 Connectors and accessories
11.5.3 Lintels
11.6 Damp-proof courses (DPCs), flashings and weatherings
11.6.1 Membrane damp-proof course and flashing (DPC)
11.6.2 Mortar weatherings
11.7 Grout
11.7.1 General
11.7.2 Materials Cement Fly ash Slag—Ground granulated blast-furnace Amorphous silica Aggregate Water Chemical admixtures
11.7.3 Strength
11.8 Reinforcement and tendons
11.8.1 Reinforcement
11.8.2 Tendons
11.8.3 Reinforcement embedded in mortar joints
12 Construction
12.1 Scope of section
12.2 General
12.3 Materials
12.3.1 General
12.3.2 Masonry units Moisture content Properties of units
12.3.3 Mortar General Measurement of materials Mixing Age of mortar when used
12.4 Workmanship
12.4.1 Base course
12.4.2 Mortar joints
12.4.3 Movement control joints
12.4.4 Bonding
12.4.5 Cutting of units
12.4.6 Holes and chases
12.4.7 Building in
12.4.8 Bolts and anchors
12.4.9 Rate of construction
12.4.10 Sections of masonry constructed at different rates or times
12.4.11 Construction during adverse weather conditions
12.4.12 Disturbance of new masonry
12.4.13 Cavities in walls
12.4.14 Weepholes
12.4.15 Joint finishing
12.4.16 Damp-proof course and flashing (DPC)
12.4.17 Lintels
12.5 Tolerances in masonry
12.5.1 General
12.5.2 Measurement of bow
12.5.3 Reinforcement and tendons
12.6 Site control
12.6.1 General
12.6.2 Verification of strength properties General Assessment for compliance with strength requirements
12.6.3 Verification of durability resistance General Assessment for compliance with durability requirements
12.6.4 Verification of mortar composition General Assessment for compliance with mix proportions
12.7 Additional site control of special masonry
12.7.1 General
12.7.2 Rate of sampling
12.7.3 Target strength
12.8 Grouted masonry
12.8.1 Cleaning out
12.8.2 Grouting
12.8.3 Sampling and testing of grout
12.9 Masonry under construction
12.9.1 Temporary bracing
12.9.2 Premature loading
12.9.3 Physical damage
12.9.4 Weather conditions
12.10 Cleaning
12.11 Testing of in situ masonry
Appendix A
A1 Scope
A2 General
A3 Abnormal test results
A3.1 General
A3.2 Rejection limits
A3.3 Rejection
A4 Mean
Appendix B
B1 Scope
B2 Evaluation of characteristic value
B3 Coefficient of variation
Appendix C
C1 Scope
C2 Number of specimens per sample
C3 Preparation of specimens
C3.1 General
C3.2 Number of courses in specimens
C3.3 Stack-bonded piers
C3.4 Additional requirements for grouted masonry specimens
C3.5 Curing
C4 Age at test
C5 Transportation
C6 Test apparatus
C7 Test procedure
C7.1 General
C7.2 Calculation of compressive strength of specimen
C8 Calculation of test strength of the sample
C9 Reporting of results
Appendix D
D1 Scope
D2 Number of specimens per sample
D3 Preparation of specimens
D3.1 General
D3.2 Number of courses in a specimen
D3.3 Stack-bonded piers
D3.4 Additional preparation requirements for grouted masonry specimens
D3.5 Curing
D4 Age at test
D5 Transportation
D6 Flexural strength by bond wrench test method
D6.1 General
D6.2 Principle
D6.3 Apparatus
D6.4 Calibration of apparatus
D6.5 Test procedure
D6.5.1 Suspended container method
D6.5.2 Testing machine method
D6.6 Calculation of flexural strength of specimen (fsp)
D7 Flexural strength by beam test
D7.1 Test procedure
D7.2 Calculation of flexural strength of specimen
D8 Calculation of test strength of the sample
D9 Reporting of results
Appendix E
E1 Scope
E2 General
E3 Sampling
E4 Apparatus
E5 Procedure
E6 Calculation of scratch index
E7 Reporting of results
Appendix F
F1 Scope
F2 Procedure
Appendix G
G1 General
G2 Preparation for testing
G3 Testing
Appendix H
H1 Scope
H2 General
H3 Restriction on the use of type M1 mortars
H4 Masonry constructed of square-dressed natural stone units
H5 Design properties
H6 Construction
Appendix I
I1 General
I2 The relationship between atmospheric corrosivity categories and durability class of masonry components
I2.1 General
I2.2 Category C1 (very low)
I2.3 Category C2 (low)
I2.4 Category C3 (medium)
I2.5 Category C4 (high)
I2.6 Category C5 (very high)
I2.7 Category CX (extreme)
Cited references in this standard
BS 6744
Stainless steel bars—Reinforcement of concrete—Requirements and test methods
EN 12878
Pigments for the colouring of building materials based on cement and/or lime. Specifications and methods of test
Structural design actions, Part 3: Snow and ice actions
[Available Superseded]
Built-in components for masonry construction, Part 1: Wall ties
Built-in components for masonry construction, Part 2: Connectors and accessories
Content history
[Available Superseded]
DR AS 3700:2017
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