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AS 3600:2018 Sup 1:2022

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Concrete structures — Commentary (Supplement 1 to AS 3600:2018)

AS 3600:2018 Sup 1:2022 provides commentary to assist in the interpretation of the provisions of AS 3600:2018 by outlining background reference material to the requirements in the Standard, indicating the origin of particular requirements, discussing departures from previous practice due to changes that have occurred in construction practice and theory since the previous edition of the Standard was published, and explaining the application of certain clauses.
Published: 25/03/2022
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Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
Header
About this publication
Preface
C1 Scope and general
C1.1 Scope and application
C1.1.1 Scope
C1.1.2 Application
C1.1.3 Exclusions
C1.2 Normative references
C1.3 Existing structures
C1.4 Documentation
C1.5 Construction
C1.6 Definitions
C1.7 Notation
C1.8 References
C2 Design procedures, actions and loads
C2.1 Design procedures
C2.1.1 Design for strength and serviceability
C2.1.2 Design for earthquake actions
C2.1.3 Design for robustness and structural integrity
C2.1.4 Design for durability and fire resistance
C2.1.5 Design for fatigue
C2.1.6 Material properties
C2.2 Design for strength
C2.2.1 General
C2.2.2 Strength check procedure for use with linear elastic methods of analysis, with simplified analysis methods and for statically determinate structures
C2.2.3 Strength check procedure for use with linear elastic stress analysis
C2.2.4 Strength check procedure for use with strut-and-tie analysis
C2.2.5 Strength check procedure for use with nonlinear analysis of framed structures
C2.2.6 Strength check procedure for use with nonlinear stress analysis
C2.3 Design for serviceability
C2.3.1 General
C2.3.2 Deflection
C2.3.3 Cracking
C2.3.3.1 General
C2.3.3.2 Control of cracking
C2.3.4 Vibration
C2.4 Design for fatigue
C2.5 Actions and combinations of actions
C2.5.1 Actions and loads
C2.5.2 Combinations of actions and loads
C2.5.3 Construction effects
C2.5.4 Arrangements of vertical loads on continuous beams, frames and floor systems
C2.6 References
C3 Design properties of materials
C3.1 Properties of concrete
C3.1.1 Strength
C3.1.1.1 Characteristic compressive strength
C3.1.1.2 Mean in situ compressive strength
C3.1.1.3 Tensile strength
C3.1.2 Modulus of elasticity
C3.1.3 Density
C3.1.4 Stress-strain curves
C3.1.5 Poisson’s ratio
C3.1.6 Coefficient of thermal expansion
C3.1.7 Shrinkage
C3.1.7.1 Calculation of design shrinkage strain
C3.1.7.2 Design shrinkage strain
C3.1.8 Creep
C3.1.8.1 General
C3.1.8.2 Basic creep coefficient
C3.1.8.3 Design creep coefficient
C3.2 Properties of reinforcement
C3.2.1 Strength and ductility
C3.2.2 Modulus of elasticity
C3.2.3 Stress-strain curves
C3.2.4 Coefficient of thermal expansion
C3.3 Properties of tendons
C3.3.1 Strength
C3.3.2 Modulus of elasticity
C3.3.3 Stress-strain curves
C3.3.4 Relaxation of tendons
C3.3.4.1 General
C3.3.4.2 Basic relaxation
C3.3.4.3 Design relaxation
C3.4 Loss of prestress in tendons
C3.4.1 General
C3.4.2 Immediate loss of prestress
C3.4.2.1 General
C3.4.2.2 Loss of prestress due to curing conditions
C3.4.2.3 Loss of prestress due to elastic deformation of concrete
C3.4.2.4 Loss of prestress due to friction
C3.4.2.5 Loss of prestress during anchoring
C3.4.2.6 Loss of prestress due to other considerations
C3.4.3 Time-dependent losses of prestress
C3.4.3.1 General
C3.4.3.2 Loss of prestress due to shrinkage of the concrete
C3.4.3.3 Loss of prestress due to creep of the concrete
C3.4.3.4 Loss of prestress due to tendon relaxation
C3.4.3.5 Loss of prestress due to other considerations
C3.5 Material properties for nonlinear structural analysis
C3.6 References
C4 Design for durability
C4.1 General
C4.2 Method of design for durability
C4.3 Exposure classification
C4.3.1 General
C4.3.2 Concession for exterior exposure of a single surface
C4.4 Requirements for concrete for exposure classifications A1, A2, B1, C1 and C2
C4.5 Requirements for concrete for exposure classification U
C4.6 Abrasion
C4.7 Freezing and thawing
C4.8 Aggressive soils
C4.8.1 Sulfate and acid sulfate soils
C4.8.2 Saline soils
C4.9 Restriction on chemical content in concrete
C4.10 Requirements for cover to reinforcing steel and tendons
C4.10.1 General
C4.10.2 Cover for concrete placement
C4.10.3 Cover for corrosion protection
C4.10.3.1 General
C4.10.3.2 Required cover where standard formwork and compaction are used
C4.10.3.3 Required cover where repetitive procedures or intense compaction are used in rigid formwork
C4.10.3.4 Required cover where self-compacting concrete is used
C4.10.3.5 Cast against ground
C4.10.3.6 Structural members manufactured by spinning or rolling
C4.10.3.7 Embedded items cover
C4.11 References
C5 Design for fire resistance
C5.1 Scope
C5.2 Definitions
C5.3 Design performance criteria
C5.3.1 General performance criteria
C5.3.2 General rules for the interpretation of tabulated data and figures
C5.3.3 Increase in axis distance for prestressing tendons
C5.3.4 Dimensional limitations to achieve fire-rating
C5.3.5 Joints
C5.3.6 The effect of chases
C5.3.7 Increasing FRPs by the addition of insulating materials
C5.4 Fire resistance periods (FRPs) for beams
C5.4.1 Structural adequacy for beams incorporated in roof or floor systems
C5.4.2 Structural adequacy for beams exposed to fire on all sides
C5.5 Fire resistance periods (FRPs) for slabs
C5.5.1 Insulation for slabs
C5.5.2 Structural adequacy for slabs
C5.6 Fire resistance periods (FRPs) for columns
C5.6.1 Insulation and integrity for columns
C5.6.2 Structural adequacy for columns
C5.6.3 Restricted tabular method to determine structural adequacy for columns
C5.6.4 General tabular method to determine structural adequacy for columns
C5.7 Fire resistance periods (FRPs) for walls
C5.7.1 Insulation for walls
C5.7.2 Structural adequacy for walls
C5.7.3 Effective height limitations for walls
C5.7.4 Other requirements for walls
C5.8 Increase of fire resistance periods (FRPs) by use of insulating materials
C5.8.1 Increase of FRP by the addition of insulating materials
C5.9 References
C6 Methods of structural analysis
C6.1 General
C6.1.1 Basis for structural analysis
C6.1.2 Interpretation of the results of analysis
C6.1.3 Methods of analysis
C6.1.4 Geometrical properties
C6.2 Linear elastic analysis
C6.2.1 General
C6.2.2 Span length
C6.2.3 Critical sections for negative moments
C6.2.4 Stiffness
C6.2.4.1 General
C6.2.4.2 Stiffness of lateral force resisting elements
C6.2.5 Deflections
C6.2.6 Secondary bending moments and shears resulting from prestress
C6.2.7 Moment redistribution in reinforced and prestressed members for strength design
C6.2.7.1 General requirements
C6.2.7.2 Deemed-to-conform approach for reinforced and prestressed members
C6.3 Elastic analysis of frames incorporating secondary bending moments
C6.3.1 General
C6.3.2 Analysis
C6.4 Linear elastic stress analysis
C6.4.1 General
C6.4.2 Analysis
C6.4.3 Sensitivity of analysis to input data and modelling parameters
C6.5 Nonlinear frame analysis
C6.5.1 General
C6.5.2 Nonlinear material effects
C6.5.3 Nonlinear geometric effects
C6.5.4 Values of material properties
C6.5.5 Sensitivity of analysis to input data and modelling parameters
C6.6 Nonlinear stress analysis
C6.7 Plastic methods of analysis
C6.7.1 General
C6.7.2 Methods for beams and frames
C6.7.3 Methods for slabs
C6.7.3.1 Lower-bound method for slabs
C6.7.3.2 Yield line method for slabs
C6.8 Analysis using strut-and-tie models
C6.8.1 General
C6.8.2 Sensitivity of analysis to input data and modelling parameters
C6.9 Idealized frame method of analysis
C6.9.1 General
C6.9.2 Idealized frames
C6.9.3 Analysis for vertical loads
C6.9.4 Analysis for horizontal loads
C6.9.5 Idealized frame method for structures incorporating two-way slab systems
C6.9.5.1 General
C6.9.5.2 Effective width
C6.9.5.3 Distribution of bending moments between column and middle strips
C6.9.5.4 Torsional moments
C6.9.5.5 Openings in slabs
C6.10 Simplified methods of flexural analysis
C6.10.1 General
C6.10.2 Simplified method for reinforced continuous beams and one-way slabs
C6.10.3 Simplified method for reinforced two-way slabs supported on four sides
C6.10.4 Simplified method for reinforced two-way slab systems having multiple spans
C6.10.4.1 General
C6.10.4.2 Total static moment for a span
C6.10.4.3 Design moments
C6.10.4.4 Transverse distribution of the design bending moment
C6.10.4.5 Moment transfer for shear in flat slabs
C6.10.4.6 Shear forces in beam-and-slab construction
C6.10.4.7 Openings in slabs
C6.11 References
C7 Strut-and-tie modelling
C7.1 General
C7.2 Concrete struts
C7.2.1 Types of struts
C7.2.2 Strut efficiency factor
C7.2.3 Design strength of struts
C7.2.4 Bursting reinforcement in bottle-shaped struts
C7.3 Ties
C7.3.1 Arrangements of ties
C7.3.2 Design strength of ties
C7.3.3 Anchorage of ties
C7.4 Nodes
C7.4.1 Types of nodes
C7.4.2 Design strength of nodes
C7.5 Analysis of strut-and-tie models
C7.6 Design based on strut-and-tie modelling
C7.7 References
C8 Design of beams for strength and serviceability
C8.1 Strength of beams in bending
C8.1.1 General
C8.1.2 Basis of strength calculations
C8.1.3 Rectangular stress block
C8.1.4 Dispersion angle of prestress and concentrated forces
C8.1.5 Design strength in bending
C8.1.6 Minimum strength requirements
C8.1.6.1 General
C8.1.6.2 Prestressed beams at transfer
C8.1.7 Stress in reinforcement and bonded tendons at ultimate strength
C8.1.8 Stress in tendons not yet bonded
C8.1.9 Spacing of reinforcement and tendons
C8.2 Strength of beams in shear
C8.2.1 General
C8.2.1.1 Combined flexure, torsion and shear
C8.2.1.2 Consideration of torsion
C8.2.1.3 Vertical component of prestress
C8.2.1.4 Tapered members
C8.2.1.5 Effective web width
C8.2.1.6 Requirements for transverse shear reinforcement
C8.2.1.7 Minimum transverse shear reinforcement
C8.2.1.8 Design yield strength of tendons as transverse shear reinforcement
C8.2.1.9 Effective shear depth
C8.2.2 Design procedures
C8.2.2.1 Flexural regions
C8.2.2.2 Regions near discontinuities
C8.2.2.3 Interface regions
C8.2.2.4 Detailed analysis
C8.2.3 Sectional design of a beam
C8.2.3.1 Design strength of a beam in shear and torsion
C8.2.3.2 Maximum transverse shear near a support
C8.2.3.3 Shear and torsional strength limited by web crushing
C8.2.4 Concrete contribution to shear strength (Vuc)
C8.2.4.1 General
C8.2.4.2 Determination of kv and θv (general method)
C8.2.4.2.1 Equations
C8.2.4.2.2 Determination of the longitudinal strain in concrete εx for shear
C8.2.4.2.3 Determination of εx for combined shear and torsion
C8.2.4.3 Determination of kv and θv for non-prestressed components (simplified method)
C8.2.4.4 Secondary effects on Vuc
C8.2.4.5 Reversal of loads
C8.2.5 Transverse shear and torsion reinforcement contribution
C8.2.5.1 General
C8.2.5.2 Transverse reinforcement for shear
C8.2.5.3 Transverse reinforcement for combined shear and torsion
C8.2.5.4 [Text deleted]
C8.2.5.5 Minimum torsional reinforcement
C8.2.5.6 Torsional resistance
C8.2.6 Hanging reinforcement
C8.2.7 Additional longitudinal tension forces caused by shear and torsion
C8.2.8 Proportioning longitudinal reinforcement
C8.3 General details for beams
C8.3.1 Detailing of flexural reinforcement and tendons
C8.3.1.1 Distribution of reinforcement and integrity reinforcement
C8.3.1.2 Continuation of negative moment reinforcement
C8.3.1.3 Anchorage of positive moment reinforcement
C8.3.1.4 Shear strength requirements near terminated flexural reinforcement
C8.3.1.5 Deemed to comply arrangement of flexural reinforcement
C8.3.1.6 Restraint of compressive reinforcement
C8.3.1.7 Bundled bars
C8.3.1.8 Detailing of tendons
C8.3.2 Detailing of shear and torsional reinforcement
C8.3.2.1 General
C8.3.2.2 Spacing
C8.3.2.3 Extent
C8.3.2.4 Anchorage of shear reinforcement
C8.3.2.5 End anchorage of mesh
C8.3.3 Detailing of torsional reinforcement
C8.4 Longitudinal shear in composite and monolithic beams
C8.4.1 General
C8.4.2 Design shear stress
C8.4.3 Shear stress capacity
C8.4.4 Shear plane reinforcement
C8.4.5 Minimum thickness of structural components
C8.5 Deflection of beams
C8.5.1 General
C8.5.2 Beam deflection by refined calculation
C8.5.3 Beam deflection by simplified calculation
C8.5.3.1 Short-term deflection
C8.5.3.2 Long-term deflection
C8.5.4 Deemed to conform span-to-depth ratios for reinforced beams
C8.6 Crack control of beams
C8.6.1 General requirements
C8.6.2 Crack control for tension and flexure in reinforced beams
C8.6.2.1 General
C8.6.2.2 Crack control without direct calculation of crack widths
C8.6.2.3 Crack control by calculation of crack widths
C8.6.3 Crack control for flexure in prestressed beams
C8.6.4 Crack control in the side face of beams
C8.6.5 Crack control at openings and discontinuities
C8.7 Vibration of beams
C8.8 T-beams and L-beams
C8.8.1 General
C8.8.2 Effective width of flange for strength and serviceability
C8.9 Slenderness limits for beams
C8.10 References
C9 Design of slabs for strength and serviceability
C9.1 Strength of slabs in bending
C9.1.1 General
C9.1.2 Reinforcement and tendon distribution in two-way flat slabs
C9.1.3 Detailing of tensile reinforcement in slabs
C9.1.3.1 General procedure for arrangement
C9.1.3.2 Deemed-to-conform arrangement for one-way slabs
C9.1.3.3 Deemed-to-conform arrangement for two-way slabs supported on beams or walls
C9.1.3.4 Deemed-to-conform arrangement for two-way flat slabs
C9.2 Structural integrity reinforcement
C9.2.1 General
C9.2.2 Minimum structural integrity reinforcement
C9.2.3 Minimum reinforcement for distributing loads
C9.2.4 Spacing of reinforcement and tendons
C9.3 Strength of slabs in shear
C9.3.1 Definitions and symbols
C9.3.2 Strength
C9.3.3 Ultimate shear strength where Mv* is zero
C9.3.4 Ultimate shear strength where Mv* is not zero
C9.3.5 Minimum area of closed fitments
C9.3.6 Detailing of shear reinforcement
C9.4 Deflection of slabs
C9.4.1 General
C9.4.2 Slab deflection by refined calculation
C9.4.3 Slab deflection by simplified calculation
C9.4.4 Deemed to conform span-to-depth ratio for reinforced slabs
C9.5 Crack control of slabs
C9.5.1 General requirements
C9.5.2 Crack control for flexure in reinforced slabs
C9.5.2.1 Crack control without direct calculation of crack widths
C9.5.2.2 Crack control by calculation of crack width
C9.5.2.3 Crack control for flexure in prestressed slabs
C9.5.3 Crack control for shrinkage and temperature effects
C9.5.3.1 General
C9.5.3.2 Reinforcement in the primary direction
C9.5.3.3 Reinforcement in the secondary direction in unrestrained slabs
C9.5.3.4 Reinforcement in the secondary direction in restrained slabs
C9.5.3.5 Reinforcement in the secondary direction in partially restrained slabs
C9.5.4 Crack control in the vicinity of restraints
C9.5.5 Crack control at openings and discontinuities
C9.6 Vibration of slabs
C9.7 Moment resisting width for one-way slabs supporting concentrated loads
C9.8 Longitudinal shear in composite slabs
C9.9 References
C10 Design of columns for strength and serviceability
C10.1 General
C10.1.1 Design strength
C10.1.2 Minimum bending moment
C10.1.3 Definitions
C10.1.3.1 Braced column
C10.1.3.2 Short column
C10.1.3.3 Slender column
C10.2 Design procedures
C10.2.1 Design procedure using linear elastic analysis
C10.2.2 Design procedure incorporating secondary bending moments
C10.2.3 Design procedure using rigorous analysis
C10.2.4 Design for shear
C10.3 Design of short columns
C10.3.1 General
C10.3.2 Short column with small compressive axial force
C10.3.3 Short braced column with small bending moments
C10.4 Design of slender columns
C10.4.1 General
C10.4.2 Moment magnifier for a braced column
C10.4.3 Moment magnifier for an unbraced column
C10.4.4 Buckling load
C10.5 Slenderness
C10.5.1 General
C10.5.2 Radius of gyration
C10.5.3 Effective length of a column
C10.5.4 End restraint coefficients for regular rectangular framed structures
C10.5.5 End restraint coefficients for any framed structure
C10.5.6 End restraint provided by footings
C10.6 Strength of columns in combined bending and compression
C10.6.1 Basis of strength calculations
C10.6.2 Strength of cross-sections calculated using the rectangular stress block
C10.6.2.1 General
C10.6.2.2 Squash load (Nuo)
C10.6.2.3 Decompression point
C10.6.2.4 Transition from decompression point to squash load
C10.6.2.5 Transition from decompression point to bending strength
C10.6.3 Design based on each bending moment acting separately
C10.6.4 Design for biaxial bending and compression
C10.7 Reinforcement requirements for columns
C10.7.1 Limitations on longitudinal steel
C10.7.2 Functions of fitments
C10.7.3 Confinement to the core
C10.7.3.1 General requirements
C10.7.3.2 Calculation of core confinement by rational calculation
C10.7.3.3 Calculation of core confinement by simplified calculation
C10.7.3.4 Deemed to conform core confinement
C10.7.4 Restraint of longitudinal reinforcement
C10.7.5 Splicing of longitudinal reinforcement
C10.8 Transmission of axial force through floor systems
C10.9 Crack control
C10.10 References
C11 Design of walls
C11.1 General
C11.2 Design procedures
C11.2.1 General
C11.2.2 Groups of walls
C11.3 Braced walls
C11.4 Effective height
C11.5 Simplified design method for braced walls subject to vertical compression forces
C11.5.1 General
C11.5.2 Limitation on use of method
C11.5.3 Design axial strength of a wall
C11.5.4 Eccentricity of vertical load
C11.6 Design of walls for in-plane shear forces
C11.6.1 Critical section for shear
C11.6.2 Strength in shear
C11.6.3 Shear strength excluding wall reinforcement
C11.6.4 Contribution to shear strength by wall reinforcement
C11.7 Reinforcement requirements for walls
C11.7.1 Minimum reinforcement
C11.7.2 Horizontal reinforcement for crack control
C11.7.3 Spacing of reinforcement
C11.7.4 Restraint of vertical reinforcement
C11.7.5 Dowelled connections in prefabricated concrete walls
C11.8 References
C12 Design of non-flexural members, end zones and bearing surfaces
C12.1 General
C12.2 Strut-and-tie models for the design of non-flexural members
C12.3 Additional requirements for continuous concrete nibs and corbels
C12.4 Additional requirements for stepped joints in beams and slabs
C12.5 Bearing zones behind concentrated forces and prestressing anchorages
C12.5.1 General
C12.5.2 Reinforcement
C12.5.3 Loading cases to be considered for prestressing systems
C12.5.4 Calculation of tensile forces along the line of a concentrated load or anchorage force
C12.5.5 Calculation of tensile forces induced near the loaded face
C12.5.6 Quantity and distribution of reinforcement
C12.6 Bearing surfaces
C12.7 Crack control
C12.8 References
C13 Stress development of reinforcement and tendons
C13.1 Stress development in reinforcement
C13.1.1 General
C13.1.2 Development length for a deformed bar in tension
C13.1.2.1 Development length to develop yield strength
C13.1.2.2 Basic development length
C13.1.2.3 Refined development length
C13.1.2.4 Development length to develop less than the yield strength
C13.1.2.5 Development length around a curve
C13.1.2.6 Development length of a deformed bar with a standard hook or cog
C13.1.2.7 Standard hooks and cogs
C13.1.3 Development length of plain bars in tension
C13.1.4 Development length of headed reinforcement in tension
C13.1.5 Development length of deformed bars in compression
C13.1.5.1 Development length to develop yield strength
C13.1.5.2 Basic development length
C13.1.5.3 Refined development length
C13.1.5.4 Development length to develop less than the yield strength
C13.1.6 Development length of plain bars in compression
C13.1.7 Development length of bundled bars
C13.1.8 Development length of welded plain or deformed mesh in tension
C13.1.8.1 Development length to develop yield strength
C13.1.8.2 Two or more cross-bars within development length
C13.1.8.3 One cross-bar within development length
C13.1.8.4 No cross-bars within development length
C13.1.8.5 Development length to develop less than the yield strength
C13.2 Splicing of reinforcement
C13.2.1 General
C13.2.2 Lapped splices for bars in tension
C13.2.3 Lapped splices for mesh in tension
C13.2.4 Lapped splices for bars in compression
C13.2.5 Lapped splices for bundled bars
C13.2.6 Welded or mechanical splices
C13.3 Stress development in tendons
C13.3.1 General
C13.3.2 Transmission lengths of pretensioned tendons
C13.3.2.1 Transmission lengths of pretensioned tendons
C13.3.2.2 Development length of pretensioned strand
C13.3.2.3 Development length of pretensioned wire
C13.3.2.4 Development length of untensioned strand or wire
C13.3.3 Stress development in post-tensioned tendons by anchorages
C13.4 Coupling of tendons
C13.5 References
C14 Design for earthquake actions
C14.1 General
C14.2 Definitions
C14.3 Structural ductility factor (μ) and structural performance factor (Sp)
C14.4 General earthquake design requirements
C14.4.1 Design for strength
C14.4.2 Inter-storey drift
C14.4.3 Moment resisting frames
C14.4.4 Structural walls
C14.4.4.1 General
C14.4.4.2 Groups of walls
C14.4.4.3 Axial load limit for elements with μ > 1
C14.4.4.4 Aspect ratio
C14.4.5 Diaphragms
C14.4.6 Ductility of reinforcement and prestressed concrete beams and band beams with μ > 1.25 and μ ≤ 3
C14.4.7 Robustness and structural integrity
C14.5 Intermediate moment-resisting frames (IMRFs)
C14.5.1 General
C14.5.2 Beams
C14.5.2.1 Longitudinal reinforcement
C14.5.2.2 Shear reinforcement
C14.5.3 Slabs
C14.5.3.1 General
C14.5.3.2 Reinforcement detailing in flat slabs
C14.5.4 Columns
C14.5.5 Column joints
C14.5.6 Robustness and structural integrity
C14.6 Limited ductile structural walls
C14.6.1 General
C14.6.2 Boundary elements
C14.6.3 Confinement of the wall core
C14.6.4 Mean concrete strength
C14.6.5 Effective height to thickness
C14.6.6 In-plane shear
C14.6.7 Reinforcement
C14.7 Moderately ductile structural walls
C14.7.1 General
C14.7.2 Effective height to thickness
C14.7.3 Vertical reinforcement laps
C14.8 References
C15 Diaphragms
C15.1 General
C15.2 Design actions
C15.2.1 General design actions
C15.2.2 Analysis procedure
C15.2.2.1 General
C15.2.2.2 Stiffness
C15.3 Cast in-place toppings
C15.4 Diaphragm reinforcement
C15.4.1 General
C15.4.2 Minimum reinforcement
C15.4.3 Effect of development and laps
C15.4.4 Collectors
C15.4.5 Construction joints
C15.5 Reference
C16 Steel fibre reinforced concrete
C16.1 General
C16.2 Definitions
C16.2.1 Crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD)
C16.2.2 Crack opening displacement (COD)
C16.2.3 Hardening behaviour
C16.2.4 Softening behaviour
C16.2.5 Steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC)
C16.2.6 Target dosage
C16.3 Properties of SFRC
C16.3.1 General
C16.3.2 Compressive strength
C16.3.3 Tensile properties
C16.3.3.1 Classification
C16.3.3.2 Matrix tensile strength
C16.3.3.3 Residual tensile strength
C16.3.3.4 Determination of strength by direct testing
C16.3.3.5 Determination of strength by indirect testing
C16.3.3.6 Residual tensile strength — Residual flexural strength relationship
C16.3.3.7 Residual flexural tensile strength
C16.3.3.8 Minimum fibres dosage
C16.3.4 Modulus of elasticity
C16.4 Design of SFRC members containing reinforcement or tendons
C16.4.1 General
C16.4.2 Strength in bending and combined bending and axial force
C16.4.3 Minimum reinforcement requirements for bending
C16.4.4 Strength of beams in shear
C16.4.4.1 Design shear strength of a beam
C16.4.4.2 Contribution to shear strength by steel fibres
C16.4.4.2.1 Design by refined calculation
C16.4.4.2.2 Design by simplified calculation
C16.4.4.3 Minimum shear reinforcement
C16.4.5 Design with strut-and-tie models
C16.4.6 Fatigue
C16.4.7 Design for serviceability limit states
C16.4.7.1 General
C16.4.7.2 Stress limits
C16.4.7.2.1 Concrete
C16.4.7.2.2 Reinforcing steel
C16.4.7.3 Deflection control
C16.4.7.3.1 General
6.4.7.3.2 Short-term deflection
C16.4.7.3.3 Long-term deflection
C16.4.7.4 Flexural crack control
C16.4.7.4.1 General
C16.5 Durability
C16.6 Fire
C16.7 Production of SFRC
C16.8 References
C17 Material and construction requirements
C17.1 Material and construction requirements for concrete and grout
C17.1.1 Materials and limitations on constituents
C17.1.2 Specification and manufacture of concrete
C17.1.3 Handling, placing and compacting of concrete
C17.1.4 Finishing of unformed concrete surfaces
C17.1.5 Curing and protection of concrete
C17.1.5.1 Curing
C17.1.5.2 Protection
C17.1.6 Sampling and testing for conformance
C17.1.7 Rejection of concrete
C17.1.8 Requirements for grout and grouting
C17.2 Material and construction requirements for reinforcing steel
C17.2.1 Materials
C17.2.1.1 Reinforcement
C17.2.1.2 Protective coatings
C17.2.2 Fabrication
C17.2.3 Bending
C17.2.3.1 General
C17.2.3.2 Site rebending
C17.2.3.3 Internal diameter of bends and hooks
C17.2.3.4 Surface condition
C17.2.4 Fixing
C17.2.5 Lightning protection by reinforcement
C17.3 Material and construction requirements for prestressing ducts, anchorages and tendons
C17.3.1 Materials for ducts, anchorages and tendons
C17.3.1.1 Ducts
C17.3.1.2 Anchorages
C17.3.1.3 Tendons
C17.3.2 Construction requirements for ducts
C17.3.2.1 Surface condition
C17.3.2.2 Sealing
C17.3.2.3 Fixing
C17.3.3 Construction requirements for anchorages
C17.3.3.1 Fixing
C17.3.3.2 Surface condition
C17.3.4 Construction requirements for tendons
C17.3.4.1 Fabrication
C17.3.4.2 Protection
C17.3.4.3 Surface condition
C17.3.4.4 Fixing
C17.3.4.5 Tensioning
C17.3.4.6 Maximum jacking forces
C17.3.4.7 Grouting
C17.3.5 Construction requirements for unbonded tendons
C17.4 Construction requirements for joints and embedded items
C17.5 Tolerances for structures and members
C17.5.1 General
C17.5.2 Tolerances for position and size of structures and members
C17.5.3 Tolerance on position of reinforcement and tendons
C17.6 Formwork
C17.6.1 General
C17.6.2 Stripping of forms and removal of formwork supports
C17.6.2.1 General
C17.6.2.2 Removal of formwork from vertical surfaces
C17.6.2.3 Stripping of soffit forms from reinforced beams and slabs where control samples are available
C17.6.2.4 Stripping of soffit forms from reinforced slabs of normal-class concrete
C17.6.2.5 Removal of formwork supports from reinforced members not supporting structures above
C17.6.2.6 Removal of formwork supports from reinforced members in multistorey structures
C17.6.2.7 Stripping of forms and removal of supports from soffits of prestressed concrete slabs and beams
C17.6.2.8 Control tests
C17.7 Prefabricated concrete structures
C17.7.1 General
C17.7.2 Prefabricated elements as floor and roof diaphragms
C17.7.3 Vertical integrity ties
C17.7.4 Prefabricated concrete load bearing walls
C17.7.5 Grout ducts to joints
C17.7.6 Seating of prefabricated floor elements
C17.8 References
C18 Design for fatigue
C18.1 General
C18.2 Maximum compressive stress in concrete
C18.3 Plain concrete with compression-tension stress
C18.4 Plain concrete with pure tension or combined tension-compression strains
C18.5 Shear limited by web compressive stresses
C18.6 Shear in slabs
C18.7 Adjustment factor for bond behaviour in reinforcing and prestressing steel
C18.8 Tensile stress range in steel
C18.9 Calculation of stresses in reinforcement and tendons of flexural members
C18.10 References
C19 Joints, embedded items and fixings
C19.1 Joints
C19.1.1 General
C19.1.2 Construction joints
C19.1.3 Movement joints
C19.1.4 Joint fillers and sealants
C19.2 Embedded items
C19.3 Fixings
C19.3.1 General
C19.3.2 Post-installed and cast-in fastenings
C19.3.3 Cast-in fixings
C19.4 References
C20 Plain concrete pedestals and footings
C20.1 General
C20.2 Durability
C20.3 Pedestals
C20.4 Footings
C20.4.1 Dimensions
C20.4.2 Strength in bending
C20.4.3 Strength in shear
C20.5 References
C21 Slab-on-ground floors, pavements and footings
C21.1 General
C21.2 Design considerations
C21.3 Footings
C21.4 References
Appendix CA
Appendix CB
CB1 General
CB2 Testing of members
CB2.1 Purpose of testing
CB2.2 Test set-up
CB2.3 Test load
CB2.4 Test deflections
CB3 Proof testing
CB3.1 Test procedures
CB3.2 Criteria for acceptance
CB3.3 Damage incurred during test
CB3.4 Test reports
CB4 Prototype testing
CB4.1 Construction of prototypes
CB4.2 Number of prototypes
CB4.3 Test load
CB4.4 Test procedure
CB4.5 Criteria for acceptance
CB4.6 Test reports
CB5 Quality control
CB5.1 General
CB5.2 Statistical sampling
CB5.3 Product certification
CB5.4 Quality system
CB6 Testing of hardened concrete in place
CB6.1 Application
CB6.2 Preparation of samples
CB6.3 Non-destructive testing
CB6.4 Tests on samples taken from the structure
CB6.4.1 Test requirements
CB6.4.2 Interpretation of results
CB7 References
Appendix CC
CC1 General
CC2 Procedure and testing
CC3 Records
CC4 Report
CC5 References
Cited references in this standard
Content history
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