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AS 3600-2009

[Available Superseded]

Concrete structures

Included in Building Essentials Historical Editions and Amendments Set
Specifies minimum requirements for the design and construction of concrete building structures and members that contain reinforcing steel or tendons, or both. Also sets out requirements for plain concrete and pedestal footings.
Published: 23/12/2009
Pages: 199
Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
About this publication
1 Scope and general
1.1 Scope and application
1.1.1 Scope
1.1.2 Application
1.1.3 Exclusions
1.2 Normative references
1.3 Existing structures
1.4 Documentation
1.5 Construction
1.6 Definitions
1.7 Notation
2 Design procedures, actions and loads
2.1 Design procedures
2.1.1 Design for strength and serviceability
2.1.2 Design for earthquake actions
2.1.3 Design for robustness
2.1.4 Design for durability and fire resistance
2.1.5 Material properties
2.2 Design for strength
2.2.1 General
2.2.2 Strength check procedure for use with linear elastic methods of analysis, with simplified analysis methods and for statically determinate structures
2.2.3 Strength check procedure for use with linear elastic stress analysis
2.2.4 Strength check procedure for use with strut-and-tie analysis
2.2.5 Strength check procedure for use with non-linear analysis of framed structures
2.2.6 Strength check procedure for use with non-linear stress analysis
2.3 Design for serviceability
2.3.1 General
2.3.2 Deflection
2.3.3 Cracking General Control of cracking
2.3.4 Vibration
2.4 Actions and combinations of actions
2.4.1 Actions and loads
2.4.2 Combinations of actions and loads
2.4.3 Construction effects
2.4.4 Arrangements of vertical loads on continuous beams, frames and floor systems
3 Design properties of materials
3.1 Properties of concrete
3.1.1 Strength Characteristic compressive strength Mean in situ compressive strength Tensile strength
3.1.2 Modulus of elasticity
3.1.3 Density
3.1.4 Stress-strain curves
3.1.5 Poisson’s ratio
3.1.6 Coefficient of thermal expansion
3.1.7 Shrinkage Calculation of design shrinkage strain Design shrinkage strain
3.1.8 Creep General Basic creep coefficient Design creep coefficient
3.2 Properties of reinforcement
3.2.1 Strength and ductility
3.2.2 Modulus of elasticity
3.2.3 Stress-strain curves
3.2.4 Coefficient of thermal expansion
3.3 Properties of tendons
3.3.1 Strength
3.3.2 Modulus of elasticity
3.3.3 Stress-strain curves
3.3.4 Relaxation of tendons General Basic relaxation Design relaxation
3.4 Loss of prestress in tendons
3.4.1 General
3.4.2 Immediate loss of prestress General Loss of prestress due to curing conditions Loss of prestress due to elastic deformation of concrete Loss of prestress due to friction Loss of prestress during anchoring Loss of prestress due to other considerations
3.4.3 Time-dependent losses of prestress General Loss of prestress due to shrinkage of the concrete Loss of prestress due to creep of the concrete Loss of prestress due to tendon relaxation Loss of prestress due to other considerations
3.5 Material properties for non-linear structural analysis
4 Design for durability
4.1 General
4.2 Method of design for durability
4.3 Exposure classification
4.3.1 General
4.3.2 Concession for exterior exposure of a single surface
4.4 Requirements for concrete for exposure classifications A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 and C2
4.5 Requirements for concrete for exposure classification U
4.6 Abrasion
4.7 Freezing and thawing
4.8 Aggressive soils
4.8.1 Sulfate and acid sulfate soils
4.8.2 Saline soils
4.9 Restrictions on chemical content in concrete
4.10 Requirements for cover to reinforcing steel and tendons
4.10.1 General
4.10.2 Cover for concrete placement
4.10.3 Cover for corrosion protection General Standard formwork and compaction Required cover where repetitive procedures or intense compaction are used in rigid formwork Required cover where self-compacting concrete is used Cast against ground Structural members manufactured by spinning or rolling Embedded items cover
5 Design for fire resistance
5.1 Scope
5.2 Definitions
5.3 Design performance criteria
5.3.1 General performance criteria
5.3.2 General rules for the interpretation of tabulated data and figures
5.3.3 Increase in axis distance for prestressing tendons
5.3.4 Dimensional limitations to achieve fire-rating
5.3.5 Joints
5.3.6 The effect of chases
5.3.7 Increasing FRPs by the addition of insulating materials
5.4 Fire resistance periods (FRPs) for beams
5.4.1 Structural adequacy for beams incorporated in roof or floor systems
5.4.2 Structural adequacy for beams exposed to fire on all sides
5.5 Fire resistance periods (FRPs) for slabs
5.5.1 Insulation for slabs
5.5.2 Structural adequacy for slabs
5.6 Fire resistance periods (FRPs) for columns
5.6.1 Insulation and integrity for columns
5.6.2 Structural adequacy for columns
5.6.3 Restricted tabular method to determine structural adequacy for columns
5.6.4 General tabular method to determine structural adequacy for columns
5.7 Fire resistance periods (FRPs) for walls
5.7.1 Insulation for walls
5.7.2 Structural adequacy for walls
5.7.3 Effective height limitations for walls
5.7.4 Other requirements for walls Recesses for services in walls Effect of chases on structural adequacy of walls Effect of chases on integrity and insulation of walls
5.8 Increase of fire resistance periods (FRPs) by use of insulating materials
5.8.1 Increase of FRP by the addition of insulating materials General Acceptable forms of insulation Thickness of insulating material Reinforcement in sprayed or trowelled insulating materials
5.8.2 Increase of insulation period of slabs by application of toppings
6 Methods of structural analysis
6.1 General
6.1.1 Basis for structural analysis
6.1.2 Interpretation of the results of analysis
6.1.3 Methods of analysis
6.1.4 Geometrical properties Column strip Design strip Middle strip Span support Transverse width
6.2 Linear elastic analysis
6.2.1 General
6.2.2 Span length
6.2.3 Critical sections for negative moments
6.2.4 Stiffness
6.2.5 Deflections
6.2.6 Secondary bending moments and shears resulting from prestress
6.2.7 Moment redistribution in reinforced and prestressed members for strength design General requirements Deemed-to-comply approach for reinforced and prestressed members
6.3 Elastic analysis of frames incorporating secondary bending moments
6.3.1 General
6.3.2 Analysis
6.4 Linear elastic stress analysis
6.4.1 General
6.4.2 Analysis
6.4.3 Sensitivity of analysis to input data and modelling parameters
6.5 Non-linear frame analysis
6.5.1 General
6.5.2 Non-linear material effects
6.5.3 Non-linear geometric effects
6.5.4 Values of material properties
6.5.5 Sensitivity of analysis to input data and modelling parameters
6.6 Non-linear stress analysis
6.6.1 General
6.6.2 Analysis
6.6.3 Non-linear material and geometric effects
6.6.4 Values of material properties
6.6.5 Sensitivity of analysis to input data and modelling parameters
6.7 Plastic methods of analysis
6.7.1 General
6.7.2 Methods for beams and frames
6.7.3 Methods for slabs Lower-bound method for slabs Yield line method for slabs
6.8 Analysis using strut-and-tie models
6.8.1 General
6.8.2 Sensitivity of analysis to input data and modelling parameters
6.9 Idealized frame method of analysis
6.9.1 General
6.9.2 Idealized frames
6.9.3 Analysis for vertical loads
6.9.4 Analysis for horizontal loads
6.9.5 Idealized frame method for structures incorporating two-way slab systems General Effective width Distribution of bending moments between column and middle strips Torsional moments Openings in slabs
6.10 Simplified methods of flexural analysis
6.10.1 General
6.10.2 Simplified method for reinforced continuous beams and one-way slabs Application Negative design moment Positive design moment Transverse design shear force
6.10.3 Simplified method for reinforced two-way slabs supported on four sides General Design bending moments Torsional moment at exterior corners Load allocation
6.10.4 Simplified method for reinforced two-way slab systems having multiple spans General Total static moment for a span Design moments Transverse distribution of the design bending moment Moment transfer for shear in flat slabs Shear forces in beam-and-slab construction Openings in slabs
7 Strut-and-tie modelling
7.1 General
7.2 Concrete struts
7.2.1 Types of struts
7.2.2 Strut efficiency factor
7.2.3 Design strength of struts
7.2.4 Bursting reinforcement in bottle-shaped struts
7.3 Ties
7.3.1 Arrangement of ties
7.3.2 Design strength of ties
7.3.3 Anchorage of ties
7.4 Nodes
7.4.1 Types of nodes
7.4.2 Design strength of nodes
7.5 Analysis of strut-and-tie models
7.6 Design based on strut-and-tie modelling
7.6.1 Design for strength
7.6.2 Serviceability checks
8 Design of beams for strength and serviceability
8.1 Strength of beams in bending
8.1.1 General
8.1.2 Basis of strength calculations
8.1.3 Rectangular stress block
8.1.4 Dispersion angle of prestress
8.1.5 Design strength in bending
8.1.6 Minimum strength requirements General Prestressed beams at transfer
8.1.7 Stress in reinforcement and bonded tendons at ultimate strength
8.1.8 Stress in tendons not yet bonded
8.1.9 Spacing of reinforcement and tendons
8.1.10 Detailing of flexural reinforcement and tendons General procedure for detailing reinforcement and tendons Distribution of reinforcement Continuation of negative moment reinforcement Anchorage of positive moment reinforcement Shear strength requirements near terminated flexural reinforcement Deemed to comply arrangement of flexural reinforcement Restraint of compressive reinforcement Bundled bars Detailing of tendons
8.2 Strength of beams in shear
8.2.1 General
8.2.2 Design shear strength of a beam
8.2.3 Tapered members
8.2.4 Maximum transverse shear near a support
8.2.5 Requirements for shear reinforcement
8.2.6 Shear strength limited by web crushing
8.2.7 Shear strength of a beam excluding shear reinforcement Reinforced beams Prestressed beams Secondary effects on Vuc Reversal of loads and members in torsion
8.2.8 Minimum shear reinforcement
8.2.9 Shear strength of a beam with minimum reinforcement
8.2.10 Contribution to shear strength by the shear reinforcement
8.2.11 Hanging reinforcement
8.2.12 Detailing of shear reinforcement Types Spacing Extent Anchorage of shear reinforcement End anchorage of mesh
8.3 Strength of beams in torsion
8.3.1 General
8.3.2 Secondary torsion
8.3.3 Torsional strength limited by web crushing
8.3.4 Requirements for torsional reinforcement
8.3.5 Torsional strength of a beam
8.3.6 Longitudinal torsional reinforcement
8.3.7 Minimum torsional reinforcement
8.3.8 Detailing of torsional reinforcement
8.4 Longitudinal shear in composite and monolithic beams
8.4.1 General
8.4.2 Design shear stress
8.4.3 Shear stress capacity
8.4.4 Shear plane reinforcement
8.4.5 Minimum thickness of structural components
8.5 Deflection of beams
8.5.1 General
8.5.2 Beam deflection by refined calculation
8.5.3 Beam deflection by simplified calculation Short-term deflection Long-term deflection
8.5.4 Deemed to comply span-to-depth ratios for reinforced beams
8.6 Crack control of beams
8.6.1 Crack control for tension and flexure in reinforced beams
8.6.2 Crack control for flexure in prestressed beams
8.6.3 Crack control in the side face of beams
8.6.4 Crack control at openings and discontinuities
8.7 Vibration of beams
8.8 T-beams and L-beams
8.8.1 General
8.8.2 Effective width of flange for strength and serviceability
8.9 Slenderness limits for beams
8.9.1 General
8.9.2 Simply supported and continuous beams
8.9.3 Cantilever beams
8.9.4 Reinforcement for slender prestressed beams
9 Design of slabs for strength and serviceability
9.1 Strength of slabs in bending
9.1.1 General
9.1.2 Reinforcement and tendon distribution in two-way flat slabs
9.1.3 Detailing of tensile reinforcement in slabs General procedure for arrangement Deemed-to-comply arrangement for one-way slabs Deemed-to-comply arrangement for two-way slabs supported on beams or walls Deemed-to-comply arrangement for two-way flat slabs
9.1.4 Minimum reinforcement for distributing loads
9.1.5 Spacing of reinforcement and tendons
9.2 Strength of slabs in shear
9.2.1 Definitions and symbols Critical shear perimeter Critical opening Effective area of a support or concentrated load Torsion strip Symbols
9.2.2 Strength
9.2.3 Ultimate shear strength where Mv∗ is zero
9.2.4 Ultimate shear strength where Mv∗ is not zero
9.2.5 Minimum area of closed fitments
9.2.6 Detailing of shear reinforcement
9.3 Deflection of slabs
9.3.1 General
9.3.2 Slab deflection by refined calculation
9.3.3 Slab deflection by simplified calculation
9.3.4 Deemed to comply span-to-depth ratio for reinforced slabs One-way slabs and two-way flat slabs Rectangular slabs supported on four sides
9.4 Crack control of slabs
9.4.1 Crack control for flexure in reinforced slabs
9.4.2 Crack control for flexure in prestressed slabs
9.4.3 Crack control for shrinkage and temperature effects General Reinforcement in the primary direction Reinforcement in the secondary direction in unrestrained slabs Reinforcement in the secondary direction in restrained slabs Reinforcement in the secondary direction in partially restrained slabs
9.4.4 Crack control in the vicinity of restraints
9.4.5 Crack control at openings and discontinuities
9.5 Vibration of slabs
9.6 Moment resisting width for one-way slabs supporting concentrated loads
9.7 Longitudinal shear in composite slabs
10 Design of columns for strength and serviceability
10.1 General
10.1.1 Design strength
10.1.2 Minimum bending moment
10.1.3 Definitions
10.2 Design procedures
10.2.1 Design procedure using linear elastic analysis
10.2.2 Design procedure incorporating secondary bending moments
10.2.3 Design procedure using rigorous analysis
10.3 Design of short columns
10.3.1 General
10.3.2 Short column with small compressive axial force
10.3.3 Short braced column with small bending moments
10.4 Design of slender columns
10.4.1 General
10.4.2 Moment magnifier for a braced column
10.4.3 Moment magnifier for an unbraced column
10.4.4 Buckling load
10.5 Slenderness
10.5.1 General
10.5.2 Radius of gyration
10.5.3 Effective length of a column
10.5.4 End restraint coefficients for regular rectangular framed structures
10.5.5 End restraint coefficients for any framed structure
10.5.6 End restraint provided by footings
10.6 Strength of columns in combined bending and compression
10.6.1 Basis of strength calculations
10.6.2 Strength of cross-sections calculated using the rectangular stress block General Squash load (Nuo) Decompression point Transition from decompression point to squash load Transition from decompression point to bending strength
10.6.3 Design based on each bending moment acting separately
10.6.4 Design for biaxial bending and compression
10.7 Reinforcement requirements for columns
10.7.1 Limitations on longitudinal steel
10.7.2 Functions of fitments
10.7.3 Confinement to the core General requirements Calculation of core confinement by rational calculation Calculation of core confinement by simplified calculation Deemed to comply core confinement
10.7.4 Restraint of longitudinal reinforcement General requirements Lateral restraint Diameter and spacing of fitments and helices Detailing of fitments and helices Column joint reinforcement
10.7.5 Splicing of longitudinal reinforcement General Minimum tensile strength Where tensile force exceeds the minimum tensile strength End-bearing splice in compression Offset bars
10.8 Transmission of axial force through floor systems
11 Design of walls
11.1 General
11.2 Design procedures
11.2.1 General
11.2.2 Groups of walls
11.3 Braced walls
11.4 Effective height
11.5 Simplified design method for walls subject to vertical compression forces
11.5.1 Design axial strength of a wall
11.5.2 Eccentricity of vertical load
11.6 Design of walls for in-plane shear forces
11.6.1 Critical section for shear
11.6.2 Strength in shear
11.6.3 Shear strength excluding wall reinforcement
11.6.4 Contribution to shear strength by wall reinforcement
11.7 Reinforcement requirements for walls
11.7.1 Minimum reinforcement
11.7.2 Horizontal reinforcement for crack control
11.7.3 Spacing of reinforcement
11.7.4 Restraint of vertical reinforcement
12 Design of non-flexural members, end zones and bearing surfaces
12.1 General
12.1.1 Scope of Section
12.1.2 Design for strength
12.1.3 Design for serviceability
12.2 Strut-and-tie models for the design of non-flexural members
12.2.1 Design models
12.2.2 Strut bursting reinforcement
12.3 Additional requirements for continuous concrete nibs and corbels
12.4 Additional requirements for stepped joints in beams and slabs
12.5 Anchorage zones for prestressing anchorages
12.5.1 General
12.5.2 Reinforcement
12.5.3 Loading cases to be considered
12.5.4 Calculation of tensile forces along line of an anchorage force
12.5.5 Calculation of tensile forces induced near the loaded face
12.5.6 Quantity and distribution of reinforcement
12.6 Bearing surfaces
12.7 Crack control
13 Stress development of reinforcement and tendons
13.1 Stress development in reinforcement
13.1.1 General
13.1.2 Development length for a deformed bar in tension Development length to develop yield strength Basic development length Refined development length Development length to develop less than the yield strength Development length around a curve Development length of a deformed bar with a standard hook or cog Standard hooks and cogs
13.1.3 Development length of plain bars in tension
13.1.4 Development length of headed reinforcement in tension
13.1.5 Development length of deformed bars in compression Development length to develop yield strength Basic development length Refined development length Development length to develop less than the yield strength
13.1.6 Development length of plain bars in compression
13.1.7 Development length of bundled bars
13.1.8 Development length of welded plain or deformed mesh in tension Development length to develop yield strength Two or more cross-bars within development length One cross-bar within development length No cross-bars within development length Development length to develop less than the yield strength
13.2 Splicing of reinforcement
13.2.1 General
13.2.2 Lapped splices for bars in tension
13.2.3 Lapped splices for mesh in tension
13.2.4 Lapped splices for bars in compression
13.2.5 Lapped splices for bundled bars
13.2.6 Welded or mechanical splices
13.3 Stress development in tendons
13.3.1 General
13.3.2 Transmission lengths of pretensioned tendons Transmission lengths of pretensioned tendons Development length of pretensioned strand Development length of pretensioned wire Development length of untensioned strand or wire
13.3.3 Stress development in post-tensioned tendons by anchorages
13.4 Coupling of tendons
14 Joints, embedded items and fixings
14.1 Joints
14.1.1 General
14.1.2 Construction joints General Joint spacing
14.1.3 Movement joints General Joint spacing
14.1.4 Joint fillers and sealants
14.2 Embedded items
14.2.1 General
14.2.2 Pipes
14.2.3 Spacing
14.3 Fixings
15 Plain concrete pedestals and footings
15.1 General
15.2 Durability
15.3 Pedestals
15.4 Footings
15.4.1 Dimensions
15.4.2 Strength in bending
15.4.3 Strength in shear
16 Slab-on-ground floors, pavements and footings
16.1 General
16.2 Design considerations
16.3 Footings
16.3.1 Reinforced footings
16.3.2 Plain concrete footings
17 Material and construction requirements
17.1 Material and construction requirements for concrete and grout
17.1.1 Materials and limitations on constituents
17.1.2 Specification and manufacture of concrete
17.1.3 Handling, placing and compacting of concrete
17.1.4 Finishing of unformed concrete surfaces
17.1.5 Curing and protection of concrete Curing Protection
17.1.6 Sampling and testing for compliance General Concrete specified by strength grade Concrete specified by parameters other than strength grade
17.1.7 Rejection of concrete Plastic concrete Hardened concrete Action on hardened concrete liable to rejection
17.1.8 Requirements for grout and grouting Grout properties Mixing and agitation
17.2 Material and construction requirements for reinforcing steel
17.2.1 Materials Reinforcement Protective coatings
17.2.2 Fabrication
17.2.3 Bending General Internal diameter of bends or hooks
17.2.4 Surface condition
17.2.5 Fixing
17.2.6 Lightning protection by reinforcement
17.3 Material and construction requirements for prestressing ducts, anchorages and tendons
17.3.1 Materials for ducts, anchorages and tendons Ducts Anchorages Tendons
17.3.2 Construction requirements for ducts Surface condition Sealing Fixing
17.3.3 Construction requirements for anchorages Fixing Surface condition
17.3.4 Construction requirements for tendons Fabrication Protection Surface condition Fixing Tensioning Maximum jacking forces Grouting
17.3.5 Construction requirements for unbonded tendons
17.4 Construction requirements for joints and embedded items
17.4.1 Location of construction joints
17.4.2 Embedded and other items not shown in the drawings
17.5 Tolerances for structures and members
17.5.1 General
17.5.2 Tolerances for position and size of structures and members Absolute position Floor-to-floor plumb Deviation from specified dimensions Deviation from surface alignment
17.5.3 Tolerance on position of reinforcement and tendons
17.6 Formwork
17.6.1 General
17.6.2 Stripping of forms and removal of formwork supports General Removal of formwork from vertical surfaces Stripping of soffit forms from reinforced beams and slabs where control samples are available Stripping of soffit forms from reinforced slabs of normal-class concrete Removal of formwork supports from reinforced members not supporting structures above Removal of formwork supports from reinforced members in multistorey structures Stripping of forms and removal of supports from soffits of prestressed concrete slabs and beams Control tests
Appendix A
Appendix B
B1 General
B2 Testing of members
B2.1 Purpose of testing
B2.2 Test set-up
B2.3 Test load
B2.4 Test deflections
B3 Proof testing
B3.1 Test procedures
B3.2 Criteria for acceptance
B3.3 Damage incurred during test
B3.4 Test reports
B4 Prototype testing
B4.1 Construction of prototypes
B4.2 Number of prototypes
B4.3 Test load
B4.4 Test procedure
B4.5 Criteria for acceptance
B4.6 Test reports
B5 Quality control
B5.1 General
B5.2 Statistical sampling
B5.3 Product certification
B5.4 Quality system
B6 Testing of hardened concrete in place
B6.1 Application
B6.2 Preparation of samples
B6.3 Non-destructive testing
B6.4 Tests on samples taken from the structure
B6.4.1 Test requirements
B6.4.2 Interpretation of results
Appendix C
C1 General
C2 Definitions
C3 Structural ductility factor (μ) and structural performance factor (Sp)
C4 Intermediate moment-resisting frames (IMRFs)
C4.1 General
C4.2 Beams
C4.2.1 Longitudinal reinforcement
C4.2.2 Shear reinforcement
C4.3 Slabs
C4.3.1 General
C4.3.2 Reinforcement detailing in flat slabs
C4.4 Columns
C4.5 Column joints
C4.6 Prestressed IMRFs
C4.6.1 General
C4.6.2 Connections
C4.6.3 Supports
C4.6.4 Prestressed beams
C4.6.5 Prestressed columns
C4.6.6 Beam-column joints
C5 Ductile shear walls
C5.1 General
C5.2 Reinforcement
C5.3 Boundary elements
Amendment control sheet
AS 3600—2009
Amendment No. 1 (2010)
Amendment No. 2 (2013)
Cited references in this standard
Methods of testing concrete, Method 2: Preparing concrete mixes in the laboratory
Sampling procedures and tables for inspection by attributes
Structural design actions, Part 4: Earthquake actions in Australia
Methods of testing concrete, Method 17: Determination of the static chord modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio of concrete specimens
Methods of testing concrete, Method 16: Determination of creep of concrete cylinders in compression
Content history
[Available Superseded]
[Available Superseded]
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