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AS 2159-2009

[Pending Revision]

Piling — Design and installation

Included in NCC Primary References Set
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Sets out minimum requirements for the design, construction and testing of piled footings for civil engineering and building structures on land or immediate inshore locations.
Published: 04/11/2009
Pages: 85
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Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
About this publication
1 Scope and general
1.1 Scope
1.2 Normative references
1.3 Definitions
1.4 Notation
1.5 Classification of piles
1.5.1 General
1.5.2 Displacement piles
1.5.3 Non-displacement piles General Supported Unsupported
1.5.4 Partial displacement, post-grouted and preloaded non-displacement piles
2 Site investigation
2.1 General
2.2 Information required
3 Design requirements and procedures
3.1 Objective of pile design
3.2 General design requirements
3.2.1 General
3.2.2 Design for ultimate strength
3.2.3 Design for serviceability
3.2.4 Design for durability
3.2.5 Design for other relevant requirements
3.3 Actions and combinations for strength and serviceability design
3.3.1 Actions and loads General Ground movement Handling Installation
3.3.2 Load combinations for strength design
3.3.3 Load combinations for serviceability design
4 Geotechnical design
4.1 General
4.2 Assessment of geotechnical parameters
4.3 General principles of geotechnical strength design
4.3.1 Design geotechnical strength
4.3.2 Assessment of basic geotechnical strength reduction factor (ϕgb)
4.3.3 Assessment of design ultimate geotechnical strength (Rd,ug)
4.4 Design requirements for strength
4.4.1 Design ultimate geotechnical strength in compression
4.4.2 Design ultimate geotechnical strength in uplift
4.4.3 Design ultimate geotechnical strength of a pile group in compression or uplift General End-bearing piles Soft material at depth
4.4.4 Combined pile and raft foundation
4.4.5 Negative friction
4.4.6 Soil swelling
4.4.7 Design ultimate geotechnical strength for lateral loading
4.4.8 Cyclic loading
4.4.9 Dynamic loading
4.4.10 Earthquake loading
4.5 General principles of geotechnical design for serviceability
4.5.1 Design actions
4.5.2 Design criteria
4.5.3 Deflection limits
4.5.4 Geotechnical parameters for serviceability limit states
4.6 Design requirements for serviceability
4.6.1 Deflection of a pile
4.6.2 Combined pile and raft footing
4.6.3 Settlement due to negative friction
4.6.4 Pile heave due to soil swelling
4.6.5 Deflection due to cyclic, impact, dynamic, earthquake, torsional or other loads
5 Structural design
5.1 Scope of section
5.2 General principles of structural strength design
5.2.1 Design structural strength
5.2.2 Design bending moment (Md)
5.2.3 Buckling of a pile
5.2.4 Pile splice
5.3 Concrete and grout piles
5.3.1 General
5.3.2 Cast in place piles
5.3.3 Reinforcement requirement
5.3.4 Partially reinforced pile
5.3.5 Unreinforced piles
5.3.6 Cast in place screw piles
5.3.7 Lateral restraint of longitudinal reinforcement and tendons
5.4 Steel piles
5.4.1 General
5.4.2 Steel screw piles Actions and loads Shaft Helix Connections and splices
5.5 Composite steel and concrete piles
5.6 Timber piles
5.6.1 General
5.6.2 Timber pile splices
5.6.3 Connection details Compression, lateral and bending loads Tension loads
6 Durability design
6.1 General
6.2 General principles of durability design
6.3 Acid sulfate soils
6.4 Design for durability of concrete piles
6.4.1 General
6.4.2 Exposure classification for concrete piles
6.4.3 Durability requirements
6.5 Design for durability of steel piles
6.5.1 General
6.5.2 Exposure classification for steel piles
6.5.3 Corrosion allowance for steel piles
6.5.4 Coating protection systems
6.5.5 Cathodic protection
6.6 Design for durability of timber piles
6.6.1 Design life
6.6.2 Timber selection and treatment
6.6.3 Timber preservation
6.6.4 Treatment after cut-off
6.6.5 Marine piles
7 Materials and construction requirements
7.1 General
7.1.1 Concrete
7.1.2 Grout
7.1.3 Steel
7.1.4 Timber
7.2 Tolerances and defects
7.2.1 Positional tolerances
7.2.2 Cut-off levels
7.2.3 Trimming and capping
7.2.4 Variation in pile depths
7.2.5 Defective piles
7.3 Displacement piles—Preformed
7.3.1 Dimensional tolerances
7.3.2 Handling and storage
7.3.3 Installation by driving Installation stresses Founding criteria Pile heave
7.3.4 Installation by jacking Jacking force Calibration of rig Pile movements
7.3.5 Installation by screwing Dimensional accuracy Handling and storage Installation General Installation stresses Construction monitoring Installation torque
7.4 Displacement piles—Driven cast in place
7.4.1 Dimensional accuracy
7.4.2 Liners
7.4.3 Construction
7.5 Displacement piles—Screwed cast in place
7.5.1 General
7.5.2 Dimensional accuracy
7.5.3 Construction
7.5.4 Sampling and testing
7.6 Non-displacement piles
7.6.1 Dimensional accuracy
7.6.2 Support systems
7.6.3 Excavation of the pile shaft
7.6.4 Base and shaft preparation
7.6.5 Construction
7.6.6 Continuous flight auger piles Installation Sampling and testing
7.7 Records of data
7.7.1 Displacement piles Driven displacement piles Jacked displacement piles Cast in place screw displacement piles
7.7.2 Non-displacement piles
8 Testing
8.1 Scope
8.2 General requirements
8.2.1 Selection and construction of test piles
8.2.2 Effect of changed conditions
8.2.3 Performance of the tests
8.2.4 Requirement to test
8.3 Pile load testing
8.3.1 Types of pile load testing
8.3.2 Information required
8.3.3 Test load General Without negative friction Where negative friction is expected to occur Hammer energy
8.3.4 Acceptance of piles
8.3.5 Effects of test set-up
8.4 Static load testing
8.4.1 Use of static loading
8.4.2 Test procedure Proof load test Ultimate geotechnical strength test
8.4.3 Acceptance criteria Proof tests Ultimate geotechnical strength tests Tension tests Lateral tests Definition of ultimate geotechnical strength
8.5 High-strain dynamic pile testing
8.5.1 General
8.5.2 Acceptance criteria
8.6 Bi-directional load testing
8.6.1 General
8.6.2 Performance criteria
8.7 Rapid load testing
8.7.1 General
8.7.2 Acceptance criteria
8.8 Integrity testing
8.8.1 General
8.8.2 Test procedure
8.8.3 Acceptance criteria
Appendix A
A1 General
A2 Preparation and apparatus
A2.1 Preparation for testing
A2.2 Reaction system
A2.3 Equipment for loading and test measurement
A2.3.1 General
A2.3.2 Measurement of load
A2.3.3 Measurement of pile displacement
A3 Loading progress and recording of data
A3.1 General
A3.2 Load application
A3.3 Recording during the loading stages
A3.4 Recording during unloading stages
A4 Report
Appendix B
B1 General
B2 Pile preparation
B3 Hammer energy
B4 Negative friction
B5 Time and purpose of testing
B6 Application of dynamic testing
B7 Instrumentation
B8 Test procedure
B9 Report
Appendix C
C1 General
C2 Definitions
C2.1 Rapid force
C2.2 Wave speed
C2.3 Natural period
C3 Safety
C4 Equipment
C4.1 General
C4.2 Equipment using pressure of gases produced by combustion
C4.3 Equipment using a drop mass
C5 Measuring systems
C5.1 Measurement of force
C5.2 Measurement of pile movement
C5.3 Pile groups
C5.4 Measurement of acceleration
C6 Recording of results
C7 Analysis of results
C8 Report
Appendix D
D1 Scope
D2 General requirements
D2.1 Preparation for testing
D2.2 Time of testing
D2.3 Report
D3 Pulse echo method
D3.1 General
D3.2 Site testing
D3.3 Signal processing
D4 Vibration method
D4.1 General
D4.2 Site testing
D4.3 Signal processing
D5 Impulse response method
D5.1 General
D5.2 Site testing
D5.3 Signal processing
D6 Sonic logging method
D6.1 General
D6.2 Site testing
D6.3 Signal processing
D7 Alternative test methods
Appendix E
Amendment control sheet
Cited references in this standard
Structural steel welding (known as the SAA Structural Steel Welding Code), Part 1: Welding of steel structures
Aggregates and rock for engineering purposes, Part 1: Concrete aggregates
Geotechnical site investigations
Timber structures, Part 1: Design methods
Specification for preservative treatment, Part 1: Sawn and round timber
Content history
[Available Superseded]
[Available Superseded]
DR 08180