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SA TR 15916:2021

[Current]

Basic considerations for the safety of hydrogen systems (ISO TR 15916:2015, MOD)

Adopts ISO/TR 15916:2015 with modifications for Australia, which provides guidelines for the use of hydrogen in its gaseous and liquid forms as well as its storage in either of these or other forms (e.g. hydrides). It identifies the basic safety concerns, hazards and risks, and describes the properties of hydrogen that are relevant to safety. Other detailed safety requirements associated with hydrogen and specific hydrogen applications are treated in separate, relevant standards.
Published: 28/05/2021
Pages: 66
Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
Header
About this publication
Preface
Foreword
Introduction
1 Scope
2 Normative references
3 Terms and definitions
4 Overview of hydrogen applications
4.1 Basic hydrogen infrastructure
4.1.1 Categories of infrastructure
4.1.2 Production
4.1.3 Storage and transport
4.1.3.1 General
4.1.3.2 Gaseous storage and transport
4.1.3.3 Liquid storage and transport
4.1.3.4 Other storage options
4.1.3.5 Vehicular storage systems
4.1.4 Hydrogen use applications
4.2 Typical hydrogen system components
4.2.1 General
4.2.2 Storage vessels
4.2.3 Fluid delivery lines, piping, joints, and seals
4.2.4 Flow controls
4.2.5 Pressure-relief systems
4.2.6 Detection components
4.2.7 Other components
4.2.8 Considerations for conditions external to the system
4.3 Hydrogen fuel
4.4 Environmental effects
5 Basic properties of hydrogen
5.1 General properties
5.1.1 Atomic and molecular properties
5.1.2 Appearance and general characteristics
5.2 Selected thermophysical properties
5.2.1 General
5.2.2 Selected thermophysical properties of gaseous hydrogen
5.2.2.1 Dispersion
5.2.2.2 Viscosity
5.2.2.3 Gaseous heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and the Joule-Thomson coefficient
5.2.3 Selected thermophysical properties of cryogenic liquid hydrogen
5.2.3.1 Density and thermal expansion
5.2.3.2 Equivalent volume of gas
5.2.3.3 Heat capacity
5.2.3.4 Ortho-para conversion
5.3 Basic combustion properties
5.3.1 General remark on safety characteristics
5.3.2 Selected combustion properties of hydrogen
5.3.3 Explosions
5.3.4 Deflagration
5.3.5 Detonation
5.3.5.1 General
5.3.5.2 Detonation limits
5.3.6 Flammability limits
5.3.7 Ignition energy and minimum ignition energy as applied to deflagration
6 Safety considerations for the use of gaseous and liquid hydrogen
6.1 General
6.2 Hazards involved as a consequence of the properties of hydrogen
6.2.1 General
6.2.2 Gaseous hydrogen
6.2.3 Liquid hydrogen
6.3 Factors involved in combustion hazards
6.3.1 Aspects of combustion
6.3.2 Non-premixed combustion processes
6.3.3 Explosions
6.3.3.1 General
6.3.3.2 Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition
6.3.3.3 Detonation
6.3.3.4 Safety considerations
6.4 Factors involved in pressure hazards
6.4.1 General
6.4.2 Gaseous storage
6.4.3 Liquid hydrogen
6.5 Factors involved in low temperature hazards
6.6 Factors involved in hydrogen embrittlement hazards
6.6.1 Hydrogen embrittlement
6.6.2 Hydrogen attack
6.7 Health hazards
6.7.1 Cold burns
6.7.2 High temperature burns
6.7.3 Asphyxiation
6.8 Team approach and education/training needed for the safe use of hydrogen
7 Mitigation and control of hazards and risks
7.1 General mitigation and control of hazards and risk
7.1.1 General
7.1.2 Lessons learned from past experience
7.1.3 Addressing hazards
7.1.4 Minimizing the severity of the consequences of hazards
7.2 Mitigation of design hazards and risks
7.2.1 Inherently safer design
7.2.2 Considerations in the selection of suitable construction material
7.2.2.1 General
7.2.2.2 Low-temperature design considerations
7.2.2.3 Embrittlement and hydrogen attack
7.2.2.4 Non-metallic materials
7.2.3 Considerations for vessels and components
7.2.4 Prevention of overpressure
7.2.5 Considerations for piping, joints, and connections
7.2.6 Cleaning considerations
7.2.7 Component considerations
7.2.7.1 General
7.2.7.2 Pressure-relief devices
7.2.7.3 Filters
7.2.7.4 Instrumentation and controls
7.3 Prevention and mitigation of fire and explosion hazards and risks
7.3.1 General
7.3.2 Prevention of unwanted hydrogen/oxidizer mixtures
7.3.3 Ignition
7.3.3.1 Electrical sources of ignition
7.3.3.2 Mechanical sources of ignition
7.3.3.3 Thermal sources of ignition
7.3.4 Deflagration and detonation
7.3.5 Oxygen enrichment
7.4 Detection considerations
7.4.1 Hydrogen gas detection
7.4.2 Fire detection
7.5 Considerations for facilities
7.5.1 General
7.5.2 Locations
7.5.3 Exclusion areas
7.5.4 Protecting barricades
7.5.5 Safety control equipment
7.5.6 Disposal of hydrogen
7.5.7 Buildings
7.5.8 Ventilation
7.5.9 Electrical components
7.5.10 Alarms and warning devices
7.5.11 Fire protection and fire fighting
7.6 Considerations for operations
7.6.1 General
7.6.2 Operating procedures
7.6.3 Personal protective equipment
7.6.4 Cool-down
7.6.5 Transportation
7.6.6 Storage and transfer operations
7.6.7 Safety procedures
7.6.7.1 General
7.6.7.2 Emergency procedures
7.6.7.3 Fire-fighting procedures
7.6.7.4 Liquid spill procedures
7.7 Recommended practices for organizations
7.7.1 General
7.7.2 Control through organizational policies and procedures
7.7.3 Use of approved procedures and checklists
7.7.4 Conduct appropriate reviews
7.7.5 Approved maintenance and quality control programmes
7.7.6 Personnel education/training
7.7.7 Hazard and operability assessment
Annex A
A.1 General
A.2 Comparison with other common gases
A.3 Comparison with other liquefied gases
Annex B
B.1 Safety-related combustion properties
B.2 Detonation cell widths for hydrogen/air mixtures
B.3 Comparison of hydrogen with other common fuels
Annex C
C.1 Material selection criteria
C.2 Hydrogen embrittlement
C.3 Low temperature effects on metals
C.3.1 General
C.3.2 Low-temperature embrittlement
C.3.3 Thermal contraction
C.4 Material suitability for hydrogen service
Annex D
D.1 General
D.2 Basic safety considerations for chemical compounds
Bibliography
Appendix ZZ
ZZ.1 Scope
ZZ.2 Variations
Cited references in this standard
[Current]
Transportable gas storage devices - Hydrogen absorbed in reversible metal hydride
ISO 14687 (all parts)
Hydrogen fuel — Product specification
[Current]
Transportable gas cylinders - Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas contents - Part 4: Test methods for selecting steels resistant to hydrogen embrittlement
ISO 11119 (all parts)
Gas cylinders — Refillable composite gas cylinders and tubes — Design, construction and testing
[Current]
Gaseous hydrogen land vehicle refuelling connection devices
Content history
DR SA TR 15916:2020
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