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AS/NZS 5131:2016


Structural steelwork — Fabrication and erection

AS NZS 5131 2016 sets out minimum requirements for the construction of structural steelwork involving fabrication, preparation of steel surfaces for corrosion protection, corrosion protection comprising painting and galvanizing, erection and modification of steelwork. Steel fabrication standard.
Published: 08/12/2016
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Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
About this publication
1 Scope, inclusions and exclusions
1.1 Scope
1.2 Structural elements included
1.3 Structures and elements excluded
1.4 [Text deleted]
2 Normative referenced Standards
2.1 General
2.2 Normative references
3 Terms and definitions
3.1 General terms
3.2 Types of tolerance
3.3 Connection types using mechanical fasteners
3.4 Welded connections
4 Design, specification, documentation and traceability
4.1 Construction specification
4.1.1 General
4.1.2 Construction category
4.1.3 Treatment grades
4.1.4 Geometrical tolerances
4.2 Design stages
4.3 Use of building information modelling
4.4 Shop detailing documentation
4.4.1 Production
4.4.2 Scope of documentation
4.4.3 Production of shop detail documentation
4.4.4 Review of shop detail documentation
4.5 Documentation required
4.5.1 Quality documentation
4.5.2 Quality plan
4.5.3 Safety of the works
4.5.4 As-built documentation
4.5.5 Documentation of decisions
4.6 Purchasing—Components and subcontracted services
4.6.1 General
4.6.2 Components
4.6.3 Subcontracted services
4.7 Traceability
4.7.1 General
4.7.2 Lot traceability
4.7.3 Piece-mark traceability
4.7.4 Piece traceability
5 Materials
5.1 General
5.1.1 Application
5.1.2 Quality management system
5.2 Designation, documentation and traceability
5.2.1 Designation
5.2.2 Documentation
5.2.3 Level of traceability
5.3 Structural steels
5.3.1 General
5.3.2 Thickness tolerances
5.3.3 Surface condition
5.3.4 Additional requirements for particular applications
5.3.5 Lamellar tearing
5.4 Welding consumables
5.5 Mechanical fasteners
5.5.1 Corrosion resistance
5.5.2 Terminology
5.5.3 Structural fasteners for other than tensioned applications
5.5.4 Structural bolt assemblies for tensioned applications
5.5.5 Direct tension indicators
5.5.6 Weathering steel assemblies
5.5.7 Footing bolts
5.5.8 Locking devices
5.5.9 Tapered washers
5.5.10 Fasteners for thin gauge components
5.5.11 Special fasteners
5.5.12 Delivery, identification and documentation
5.5.13 Mechanical and chemical anchors
5.6 Studs and shear connectors
5.7 Explosive fasteners
5.8 Grouting materials
5.9 Storage of materials
6 Preparation, assembly and fabrication
6.1 General
6.1.1 Application
6.1.2 Quality management system
6.1.3 Work method statements
6.1.4 Steelwork to be painted or galvanized
6.1.5 Architecturally exposed structural steelwork
6.2 Identification and traceability
6.3 Handling and storage
6.4 Customer supplied property
6.5 Cutting
6.5.1 Methods of cutting
6.5.2 Roughness of cut
6.5.3 Re-entrant corners
6.5.4 Cut edges to be painted
6.6 Shaping
6.6.1 General
6.6.2 Hot forming
6.6.3 Flame straightening
6.6.4 Cold forming
6.6.5 Straightening, curving and cambering of fracture critical members (New Zealand only)
6.7 Holing
6.7.1 Holing methods
6.7.2 Circular hole diameters
6.7.3 Oversize and slotted hole sizes
6.7.4 Limitations on use of oversize and slotted holes
6.7.5 Countersinking
6.7.6 Holes for pin connections
6.7.7 Weld access holes
6.8 Full contact bearing surfaces
6.9 Assembly
6.10 Assembly check
6.11 Transit to site
6.12 Supervision
6.13 Requirements for yielding regions (New Zealand only)
6.13.1 Holing
6.13.2 Roughness of cutting
6.13.3 Transition of width and thickness
7 Welding
7.1 General
7.1.1 Quality requirements General Quality management system
7.1.2 Welding requirements
7.1.3 Requirements of construction specification
7.2 Welding plan
7.2.1 Requirements for a welding plan
7.2.2 Content of a welding plan
7.3 Welding processes
7.4 Qualification of welding procedures and welding personnel
7.4.1 Qualification of welding procedures General Validity of a welding procedure qualification
7.4.2 Qualification of welders
7.4.3 Welding coordination
7.5 Preparation and execution of welding
7.5.1 Joint preparation General Hollow sections
7.5.2 Storage and handling of welding consumables General Electrodes and fluxes with specific controlled hydrogen properties
7.5.3 Weather protection
7.5.4 Assembly for welding
7.5.5 Preheating
7.5.6 Temporary attachments
7.5.7 Tack welds
7.5.8 Fillet welds
7.5.9 Butt welds General Single sided welds Back gouging
7.5.10 Welds on weathering steel
7.5.11 Stud welding
7.5.12 Seal, slot and plug welds
7.5.13 Arc spot welds for light gauge components
7.5.14 Post weld heat treatment
7.5.15 Execution of welding General Welds on steel to be painted or galvanized Welds on architecturally exposed structural steelwork
7.5.16 Welding of continuity stiffeners in earthquake resisting members (New Zealand only)
7.5.17 Welds subject to earthquake loads or effects (New Zealand only) General Removable weld backing (New Zealand only) Permanent steel backing (New Zealand only)
7.6 Acceptance criteria
7.6.1 Routine requirements
7.6.2 Seismic requirements
7.6.3 Fatigue requirements
7.6.4 Welding dissimilar steels
8 Mechanical fastening
8.1 General
8.1.1 Application
8.1.2 Quality management system
8.1.3 Work method statements
8.1.4 Architecturally exposed structural steelwork
8.2 Bolts, nuts and washers
8.2.1 General
8.2.2 Bolts
8.2.3 Nuts
8.2.4 Washers
8.2.5 Storage
8.3 Snug-tightening of bolts
8.4 Preparation of contact surfaces on connected plies
8.4.1 General
8.4.2 Friction-type connection
8.5 Tensioning of high strength bolts
8.5.1 Competent personnel
8.5.2 Snug-tightening
8.5.3 Tensioning pattern
8.5.4 Re-tensioning
8.5.5 Minimum bolt tension
8.5.6 Part-turn method of tensioning
8.5.7 Tensioning by the use of direct-tension indication device
8.5.8 Use of compressible washer-type direct tension indicators
8.6 Fastening of thin gauge components
8.7 Use of specialized fasteners and fastening methods
8.8 Installation of mechanical and chemical anchors
8.8.1 Construction specification
8.8.2 General requirements
8.8.3 Competent personnel
8.8.4 Installation
8.8.5 Holes
8.8.6 Curing of chemical anchors
8.8.7 Tightening
8.8.8 Substitution and alteration
8.8.9 Storage and handling
8.8.10 Hitting reinforcement in concrete elements
8.8.11 Anchors in masonry
8.9 Supervision
9 Surface treatment and corrosion protection
9.1 General
9.1.1 Application
9.1.2 Architecturally exposed structural steelwork
9.2 Planning
9.2.1 Quality documentation
9.2.2 Work method statements
9.2.3 Painting and galvanizing specification details Painting Galvanizing
9.2.4 Traceability
9.3 Preparation of steel surfaces
9.3.1 Competent personnel
9.3.2 Preparation of surfaces intended to be painted
9.3.3 Surfaces intended to be galvanized
9.3.4 Steel surfaces intended for other coating systems
9.3.5 Weathering steel surfaces
9.3.6 Contact surfaces in connections using mechanical fasteners
9.3.7 Surfaces in contact with concrete
9.4 Abrasive blasting
9.4.1 General
9.4.2 Equipment
9.4.3 Restrictions
9.4.4 Surface finish
9.4.5 Precautions after preparation
9.5 Mechanical cleaning
9.5.1 Surface requirements
9.5.2 Procedure
9.6 Sealing of enclosed spaces
9.6.1 General
9.6.2 Overlapping surfaces
9.6.3 Closed sections and closed end hollow sections
9.7 Inaccessible surfaces
9.8 Fabrication and welding considerations
9.8.1 General
9.8.2 Welds
9.8.3 Rectification
9.8.4 Treatment grades
9.8.5 Cut edges
9.8.6 Pre-coated steel
9.9 Application of paint coatings
9.9.1 Competent personnel
9.9.2 Safety
9.9.3 Paint material
9.9.4 Quality control of paint material
9.9.5 Information required
9.9.6 Mixing of paint
9.9.7 Use of thinners
9.9.8 Tinting
9.9.9 Masking
9.9.10 Painting conditions
9.9.11 Priming
9.9.12 Spray painting equipment
9.9.13 Spray application
9.9.14 Brush and roller application
9.9.15 Testing equipment
9.9.16 Measurement of film continuity
9.9.17 Other tests
9.9.18 Corrosion protection of fasteners
9.9.19 Storage, handling and transport
9.9.20 Supervision of painting
9.10 Application of galvanized coatings
9.10.1 General
9.10.2 Surface preparation
9.10.3 Steel material
9.10.4 Fabrication considerations for galvanizing
9.10.5 Galvanizing method
9.10.6 Appearance of coating and freedom from defects
9.10.7 Coating mass and thickness
9.10.8 Adherence of coating
9.10.9 Repair after galvanizing
9.10.10 Storage handling and transport
9.10.11 Supervision of galvanizing
9.11 Painting of galvanized coatings
9.11.1 Treatment of galvanized surface
9.11.2 Procedure for sweep blasting
9.11.3 Painting
9.12 Repairs to corrosion protection
9.12.1 Painted surfaces
9.12.2 Paint affected by on-site welding
9.12.3 Galvanized surfaces
9.13 Cathodic protection
9.14 Galvanic coupling
10 Architecturally exposed structural steelwork
10.1 General
10.2 Categories of AESS
10.3 Construction specification information
10.4 Additional fabrication requirments for AESS
10.5 Additional erection requirements for AESS
11 Erection
11.1 General
11.2 Site planning
11.2.1 Safety plan
11.2.2 Quality management system
11.2.3 Work method statement
11.2.4 Risk assessment
11.2.5 Lifting equipment and associated personnel
11.3 Site survey
11.4 Erection design
11.5 Erection process
11.5.1 Erection sequence methodology (ESM)
11.5.2 Equipment support
11.5.3 Installation of temporary supports
11.5.4 Temporary members
11.5.5 Inspection and removal of temporary supports
11.5.6 Handling and storage
11.5.7 Assembly and alignment
11.5.8 Packing
11.5.9 Architecturally exposed structural steelwork
11.5.10 Temporary erection
11.5.11 Assembly of weathering steel components
11.6 Supports
11.6.1 Suitability of permanent supports
11.6.2 Bearings, anchor bolts and anchoring devices
11.6.3 Temporary supports
11.6.4 Grouting or mortaring at supports
11.7 Erection drawings
11.8 Erection work at site
11.9 Supervision
12 Geometrical tolerances
12.1 General
12.2 Measurement
12.3 Nonconformance of essential tolerances
12.4 Nonconformance of other than essential tolerances
13 Inspection, testing and correction
13.1 General
13.2 Inspection
13.3 Inspection of materials and components
13.3.1 General
13.3.2 Inspection and test plan
13.3.3 Competency of the inspection personnel
13.3.4 Structural steels
13.3.5 Metallic coated steels
13.3.6 Pre-fabricated components
13.3.7 Nonconforming steel or components
13.3.8 Testing of nonconforming steel or components
13.3.9 Offcuts or unused material
13.4 Measurement of fabricated and erected components
13.5 Inspection of preparation and assembly
13.5.1 Inspection and test plan
13.5.2 Competency of inspection personnel
13.5.3 Inspection report
13.6 Inspection of welding
13.6.1 Inspection of weldments—General requirements General Inspection and test plan for welding Qualifications of inspection personnel Inspection report
13.6.2 Inspection after welding Timing Scope of inspection Visual examination Non-destructive examination (NDE) of welds Correction of welds
13.6.3 Inspection and testing of welded shear studs for composite steel and concrete structures
13.6.4 Inspection of welds on enclosed spaces
13.7 Inspection of mechanical fastening
13.7.1 Inspection and test plan
13.7.2 Competency of inspection personnel
13.7.3 Inspection report
13.7.4 Inspection prior to erection of steelwork
13.7.5 Testing of mechanical fasteners
13.7.6 Inspection prior to installation of fasteners
13.7.7 Inspection after snug-tightening of fasteners
13.7.8 Inspection of tensioned high strength bolted connections
13.7.9 Inspection of fasteners in thin-gauge components
13.7.10 Inspection of specialized fasteners and fastening methods
13.7.11 Inspection of mechanical and chemical anchors
13.8 Inspection of surface treatment
13.8.1 Inspection and test plan
13.8.2 Competency of the inspection personnel
13.8.3 Inspection report
13.8.4 Pre-painting condition reports
13.9 Inspection of paint coatings
13.9.1 Inspection and test plan
13.9.2 Competency of the inspection personnel
13.9.3 Inspection report
13.9.4 Daily inspection report
13.9.5 Inspection after priming
13.9.6 Measurement of dry film thickness
13.10 Inspection of galvanized coatings
13.10.1 Inspection
13.10.2 Inspection report
13.11 Inspection of erection
13.11.1 Inspection and test plan
13.11.2 Competency of the inspection personnel
13.11.3 Inspection report
13.11.4 Survey methods and accuracy
13.11.5 System of measurement
13.11.6 Reference points and levels
13.11.7 Location and frequency of measurements
13.12 Inspection of secondary structural elements
13.12.1 Scope
13.12.2 Installation
13.12.3 Inspection report
14 Site modifications during erection and modification and repair of existing structures
14.1 General
14.2 Site modification of fabricated steelwork
14.3 Materials
14.4 Loading during operations
14.5 Cleaning
14.6 Welding
14.7 Heat straightening
14.8 Testing and inspection
14.9 Replacement of rivets
14.10 Replacement of mechanical fasteners
Appendix A
A1 General
A2 Informative referenced documents
Appendix B
B1 Required additional information
B2 Information for optional or particular applications
B3 Responsibilities to be assigned
B4 Requirements related to the construction categories
Appendix C
C1 Background
C2 Introduction
C3 Input factors determining the choice of construction category
C3.1 General
C3.2 Importance factor
C3.3 Service category
C3.4 Fabrication category
C4 Determination of the construction category
Appendix D
D1 Introduction
D2 Quality system element—Fabrication
D3 Quality system elements—Corrosion protection
D4 Quality system elements—Erection
Appendix E
E1 Introduction
E2 Content
E2.1 Management
E2.2 Specification review
E2.3 Documentation
E2.3.1 General
E2.3.2 Documentation prior to execution
E2.3.101 Shop and erection drawings
E2.3.3 Construction records
E2.3.4 Retention of documentary records
E2.4 Inspection and testing procedures
Appendix F
F1 General
F2 Manufacturing tolerances
F3 Fabrication tolerances
F4 Erection tolerances
Appendix G
G1 Test specimens
G1.1 Form
G1.2 Assembly and measurement
G1.3 Number of specimens
G2 Instrumentation
G3 Method of testing
G4 Slip load
G5 Slip factor
Appendix H
H1 General
H2 Calibration
H3 Inspection
H4 Action
Appendix I
I1 Application
I2 Inspection of welding to AS/NZS 1554.1 and AS/NZS 1554.5
I2.1 General
I2.2 Extent of non-destructive examination
I2.2.1 General
I2.2.2 Weld failure consequence category
I2.2.3 Seismic weld demand levels
I2.2.4 Seismic weld demand categories for MRF, EBF and CBF
I2.2.5 Extent of non-destructive examination after non-compliance
I2.2.6 Inspection of k-areas in members of seismic resisting frames
I2.2.7 Ultrasonic examination of welds
I2.2.8 Visual examination
I2.2.9 Visual means
I2.2.10 Other NDE (ultrasonic, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant)
I2.3 Removal of temporary attachments
I3 Inspection of bolted connections
I3.1 Traceability of bolts
I3.2 Tensioned bolts
I3.3 Verification of bolt tension
I3.4 Damaged items
Amendment control sheet
Cited references in this standard
BS 1134
Assessment of surface texture: Guidance and general information
BS 8539
Code of practice for the selection and installation of post-installed anchors in concrete and masonry
SNZ TS 3404
Durability requirements for steel structures and components
Solvent cleaning
Brush-off blast cleaning
Content history
DR2 AS/NZS 5131:2016