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AS/NZS 4853:2012


Electrical hazards on metallic pipelines

This Standard sets down the minimum requirements for managing the safety of personnel working in the vicinity of pipelines and equipment installed on pipelines and specifically addresses the requirements for the control of electrical hazards on transmission and distribution pipelines.
Published: 21/03/2012
Pages: 152
Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
About this publication
1 Scope and general
1.1 Scope
1.2 Exclusions
1.3 Retrospective application
1.4 Reference document
1.5 Definitions
1.6 Symbols and units
1.7 Abbreviations
2 Safety
2.1 General
2.2 Risk context
2.3 Assessment and management of electrical hazards
2.4 Risk assessment
2.5 Effectiveness of risk treatments
2.6 Construction safety
3 Electrical hazard sources
3.1 General
3.2 Earth Potential Rise (EPR)
3.3 Low frequency induction (LFI)
3.3.1 General
3.3.2 LFI mechanisms Load current LFI Fault current LFI A.C. traction LFI
3.4 Capacitive coupling
3.5 Effects of lightning
3.5.1 The electrical nature of lightning
3.5.2 The electrical properties of coated pipelines
3.5.3 The combination of lightning current with the pipeline
3.6 Other hazards
3.6.1 Open-circuited neutrals
3.6.2 D.C. traction systems General Voltage exposure
3.6.3 A.C. traction systems
3.6.4 Storage and handling of pipe lengths in proximity to powerlines
3.7 Interaction between pipeline protective earthing systems and cathodic protection systems
3.8 Pipeline corrosion resulting from steady state LFI
3.9 Pipe wall fusion
3.10 Electronic equipment
3.11 Constant potential cathodic protection units
3.12 Pipeline earthing to powerline earths
3.13 Plastic pipelines containing conductive liquids
4 Design process (Australia only)
4.1 General
4.2 Design process
4.3 Level 1 (conservative) compliance
4.3.1 Preliminary data gathering
4.3.2 First pass assessment General Distribution power lines—Low frequency induction Distribution power lines—Earth potential rise Transmission power lines—Low frequency induction Transmission power lines—Earth potential rise
4.4 Level 2 voltage limit compliance
4.4.1 Identifying zones of interest
4.4.2 Site visit
4.4.3 Data gathering
4.4.4 Impressed voltage calculations
4.4.5 Equipment integrity assessment
4.4.6 Voltage limit compliance
4.5 Level 3 risk based (personal safety) compliance
4.5.1 General
4.5.2 Applicable voltage scenarios
4.5.3 Methodology
4.5.4 Coincidence probability calculations Fibrillation probability calculations Risk evaluation
4.5.5 ALARP process
4.5.6 Documentation
5 Design process (New Zealand only)
5.1 General
5.2 Design process
5.3 Level 1 (conservative) compliance
5.3.1 Preliminary data gathering
5.3.2 First pass assessment General Distribution power lines (33 kV and below)—Low frequency induction Distribution power lines (33kV and below)—Earth potential rise Transmission power lines (66 kV and above)—Low frequency induction Transmission power lines (66 kV and above)—Earth potential rise
5.4 Level 2/3 risk based compliance
5.4.1 Identifying zones of interest
5.4.2 Site visit
5.4.3 Data gathering
5.4.4 Impressed voltage calculations
5.4.5 Equipment integrity assessment
5.4.6 Voltage limit compliance
5.4.7 Risk assessment General Individual risk Societal risk Acceptance criteria
5.4.8 ALARP process
5.4.9 Documentation
6 Electrical hazard control
6.1 General
6.2 LFI or EPR hazard control
6.2.1 Methods that reduce the pipeline voltage
6.2.2 Methods that reduce touch and step voltage
6.2.3 Methods that reduce risk level
6.3 Capacitive coupling control
6.3.1 General
6.3.2 Methods that reduce the pipeline voltage
6.3.3 Methods that reduce risk level
6.4 Lightning control
6.5 Control of other hazards
6.5.1 Open-circuited neutrals
6.5.2 D.C. traction systems
6.6 Hazard control for personnel during operation and maintenance activities
6.6.1 Assessment of risk sources
6.6.2 Personal protective equipment
6.6.3 Other protective equipment
7 Commissioning and maintenance of pipeline earthing systems
7.1 General
7.2 Initial commissioning and testing
7.2.1 Physical inspection
7.2.2 Electrical performance
7.3 Records
7.4 Electrical hazard integrity management plan
Appendix A
Appendix B
B1 General
B2 LFI calculation—No overhead earthwires
B3 LFI calculation—With overhead earthwires
B4 LFI calculation—Underground cable with neutral screen
Appendix C
C1 General
C2 Calculations using ρ = 100 Ω.m
C3 Mutual impedance when ρ varies from 100 Ω.M
C4 Maximum total coupling
C5 Parameters required to assess possible hazards
C5.1 High voltage power line
C5.2 Metallic pipelines
Appendix D
D1 General
D2 Types of a.c. traction system
D3 Assessment of the induction level into an adjacent pipeline
D3.1 General
D3.2 Simple 25 kV system with overhead earth wire
D3.3 (25 kV) booster transformer (BT) system
D3.4 (25 kV – 0 – 25 kV) autotransformer (AT) system
Appendix E
E1 Introduction
E2 Determination of earth electrode resistance
E3 Other options
E4 Alternative method to derive LFI fault voltage
Appendix F
F1 Introduction
F2 General approximation
F3 Single pipe length
F4 Summary
Appendix G
G1 Introduction
G2 Distribution of fault currents
G3 Calculation of resistance of earth system
G3.1 General
G3.2 Primary electrodes
G4 Determining surface voltage contours
G4.1 General
G4.2 Surface voltage gradients
G4.2.1 Only earth resistivity known
G4.2.2 Grid resistance known
G4.3 Limits for the application of simplified calculations
G4.3.1 General
G4.3.2 Non-hemispherical earthing systems
G4.3.3 Multilayer earth resistivity effects
G4.3.4 Conductors extending the EPR
G5 Example—Earth Potential Rise surrounding a 275 kv transmission tower
G5.1 Parameters
G5.2 Resistance of tower footing
G5.3 Earth fault current
G5.4 Earth potential rise
G5.5 Surface voltage contours
G6 Earth potential of substation site feed by cable or overhead line with overhead earth wire
G6.1 General
G6.2 Calculation of GMR and GMD
G6.2.1 Calculation of GMR and GMD of 3 × 1 core triplex cable with three metallic sheaths
G6.2.2 Calculation of GMR and GMD of 1 × 3 core cable with one metallic sheath
G6.2.3 Calculation of GMR and GMD of 3 phase overhead with overhead earth wire
G6.3 Worked example—Substation fed by a cable
G6.4 Worked example—Overhead feed substation with overhead earth wire return
Appendix H
H1 Mechanical handling equipment
H2 Handling well-coated pipe in the vicinity of high voltage power lines
H3 Handling long lengths of pipe strings
H4 Storage of pipe below high voltage power lines
H5 Transport by rail
H6 Personnel protection
H6.1 Protective clothing
H6.2 Protective equipment
H6.3 Measuring tapes
Appendix I
I1 General
I2 Interaction between CP and LFI and EPR control
I3 Lightning Protection (LP)
I4 Polarization cells
I5 Surge diverters
I6 Shielding of cathodic protection
Appendix J
J1 General
J2 Protective earthing
J2.1 Introduction
J2.2 Purpose of protective earthing
J2.3 Safety for personnel and public
J2.4 Design
J3 Protective measures
J4 Personnel safety during pipeline operation and maintenance
J4.1 Assessment of risk sources
J4.2 Personal protective equipment
J4.3 Other protective equipment
J4.3.1 Electrical insulating mats
J4.3.2 Equipotential mats
J4.3.3 Faraday cage
J5 Work in proximity to exposed conductors
J5.1 General
J5.2 Approach limits to electrical conductors
J5.3 Cranes and mobile plant
Appendix K
K1 General
K2 Contact scenarios (duration and frequency, series impedance)
K3 Public contact
K4 Operators
K5 Construction
K6 Maintenance
Appendix L
L1 Soil resistivity
L2 Testing and measurement
L2.1 Wenner test
L2.2 Test results
L2.3 Sources of errors
L2.4 Equipment and instrumentation
Appendix M
M1 Power stations
M2 Substations
M3 Underground power lines (cables)
M4 Overhead power lines (lines)
Cited references in this standard
Content history
DR AS/NZS 4853
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