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AS/NZS 4509.2:2010


Stand-alone power systems, Part 2: System design

Included in Solar PV and Battery Systems Set
Provides requirements and guidance for the design of stand-alone power systems with energy storage at extra-low voltage and used for the supply of extra-low and/or low voltage electric power in a domestic situation.
Published: 22/11/2010
Pages: 113
Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
About this publication
1 Scope and general
1.1 Scope
1.2 Referenced documents
1.3 Definitions
2 System design — General
2.1 Overview of the design process
2.1.1 General
2.1.2 Steps involved
2.2 General design criteria
2.3 Assessment of energy services and energy source selection
2.3.1 General
2.3.2 Identification of energy services
2.3.3 Matching energy sources to services
2.3.4 Typical sources of energy
2.4 Costing and economic evaluation
2.4.1 Quotations
2.4.2 Evaluation of design options
2.5 Documentation
3 System design — Electrical
3.1 Assessment of electricity demand
3.1.1 Information required
3.1.2 Electrical energy efficiency measures General Recommended measures Other measures to be considered Stand-by loads
3.1.3 Demand management
3.1.4 Demand assessment General Average daily energy consumption Maximum demand Surge demand a.c. loads Surge demand d.c. loads
3.1.5 Seasonal variation
3.1.6 Provision for growth
3.2 Resource assessment
3.2.1 General
3.2.2 Solar resource Existing records Adjustment for site conditions
3.2.3 Wind resource Existing records On-site measurements Adjustment for site conditions
3.2.4 Hydro resource Existing records On-site measurements Adjustment for site conditions
3.3 System configuration
3.3.1 General
3.3.2 Selection of generators Generators Renewable energy generators Internal combustion generating sets
3.3.3 Common connection of generators
3.3.4 Generating sets General Series configuration Switched configuration Parallel configuration
3.4 Component sizing and selection
3.4.1 System voltage selection (d.c.)
3.4.2 Renewable energy generator sizing and selection General Sub-system efficiencies General D.C. bus systems A.C. bus systems Systems under 1 kWh/d Systems over 1 kWh/d Systems without a generating set Determination of worst month
3.4.3 Photovoltaic array selection and sizing Selection General Module tilt angle Module orientation Irradiation data Derating factors PV cell temperature Output of photovoltaic array with standard switched regulator design Output of photovoltaic array with maximum power point tracking design Array sizing for d.c. bus PV-only systems D.C. bus systems with standard switched regulators D.C. bus systems with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) regulators Array sizing for a.c. bus PV only systems
3.4.4 Wind turbine sizing and selection
3.4.5 Micro-hydro generator sizing
3.4.6 Renewable energy fraction
3.4.7 Battery sizing and selection Battery selection Battery sizing—general Battery sizing-energy storage Battery sizing—maximum or surge demand Daily depth of discharge Determining suitable number of days of autonomy Systems with automatic generating set control (hybrid systems) Capacity derating for operating temperature
3.4.8 Regulator sizing and selection General Photovoltaic regulators Wind turbine regulators Micro-hydro regulators Battery charging regimes Temperature compensation
3.4.9 Inverter sizing and selection Inverter selection Unidirectional inverters Inverter-chargers Interactive battery inverters
3.4.10 Battery charger sizing and selection Selection Sizing Battery charger input power
3.4.11 Generating set sizing and selection Sizing—general Series system Switched system Parallel and a.c. bus systems Derating for operating conditions Generating sets run time
3.4.12 Cable sizing
3.5 Metering and control
3.5.1 Metering
3.5.2 Control Automatic Manual override
3.6 Electrical protection
3.6.1 General
3.6.2 Generating set overcurrent protection
3.6.3 Generating set isolation
3.6.4 Wiring
3.6.5 Discrimination
3.6.6 Battery overcurrent protection
3.6.7 Battery isolation
3.7 Switching and isolation
3.7.1 Switch selection
3.7.2 Isolation
3.8 Lightning protection
3.8.1 General
3.8.2 Photovoltaic regulator
3.8.3 Wind generator
3.8.4 Micro-hydro regulator
4 System design—Mechanical and civil works
4.1 General
4.1.1 Standards
4.1.2 Environmental impact
4.2 Photovoltaic array
4.2.1 Array siting
4.2.2 Structures for PV array mounting
4.3 Wind turbine generators
4.3.1 Siting
4.3.2 Tower height
4.3.3 Tower design
4.4 Micro-hydro turbine
4.4.1 Micro-hydro siting
4.4.2 Pipe
4.4.3 Water intake
4.4.4 Civil works
4.5 Generating sets
4.5.1 Accommodation
4.5.2 Exhaust system
4.5.3 Vibration
4.6 Battery
4.6.1 Battery enclosure
4.6.2 Ventilation
4.6.3 Arrangement of ventilation
4.6.4 Alarms
4.7 Noise control
4.7.1 General
4.7.2 Assessment of noise annoyance
4.7.3 Principles of noise attenuation
4.7.4 Noise reduction methods for specific items of equipment Generating sets Wind turbines Inverters and other electronic equipment
5 System performance
Appendix A
A1 Introduction
A1.1 General
A1.2 Basis used for this worked example
A2 Calculations
A2.1 Rounding
A2.2 Treatment of percentage values
Appendix B
Appendix C
C1 Cable current-carrying capacity
C2 Calculation of voltage drop
C3 Battery cable sizing
C4 Worked example of cable sizing
C4.1 Cable loss
C4.2 Cable size
C5 Cable size optimization
C5.1 General
C5.2 Rationalization of cable size
C5.3 Minimization of cable losses
Appendix D
D1 Main battery protection
D2 D.C. main protection
D3 D.C. sub-circuit protection
D4 Circuit protection sizing example
Appendix E
E1 Risk assessment
E2 Risk index
E3 Protection required
E3.1 General
E3.2 Cable entry to battery/equipment enclosure for high risk installations
Appendix F
Appendix G
Cited references in this standard
[Available Superseded]
Grid connection of energy systems via inverters, Part 1: Installation requirements
Life cycle costing — An application guide
Structural design actions, Part 4: Earthquake actions in Australia
Rotating electrical machines — General requirements, Part 109: Noise limits
Energy management programs — Guidelines for financial evaluation of a project
Content history
DR AS/NZS 4509.2
AS/NZS 4509.2:2010 Rec:2017
Inclusive of GST
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