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AS/NZS 4020:2018


Testing of products for use in contact with drinking water

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This Standard specifies requirements for the suitability of products for use in contact with drinking water, with regard to their effect on the quality of water.
Published: 29/06/2018
Pages: 85
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Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
About this publication
1 Scope
2 Referenced documents
3 Definitions
4 Test samples
4.1 Selection and preparation of samples
4.2 Range of product sizes
4.3 Product exposure
5 Scaling factors
5.1 General
5.2 Determination of scaling factors
5.3 Application of scaling factors
5.4 Restrictions on the use of scaling factors
6 Test requirements
6.1 General
6.2 Taste
6.3 Appearance
6.4 Growth of aquatic micro-organisms
6.5 Cytotoxic activity
6.6 Mutagenic activity
6.7 Metals
6.7.1 Products in general
6.7.2 End-of-line fittings
6.8 Organic compounds
7 Hot water tests
Appendix A
A1 Scope
A2 Apparatus
A3 Samples
A4 Product exposure
A4.1 In-the-product exposure
A4.2 Immersion exposure
A5 Sample transport and storage
A6 Sample washing
A7 Special products
A7.1 General
A7.2 Elastomeric products
A7.3 Greases
A7.4 Coatings
A7.5 Sealing compounds
A7.6 Jointing compounds
A7.7 Solder fluxes
A7.8 Anaerobic adhesives
A8 Cementitious products
A9 Metal alloys
Appendix B
B1 Introduction
B2 Calculation of scaling factors
B3 Examples of scaling factor calculations
Appendix C
C1 Scope
C2 Introduction
C3 Principle
C4 Test premises
C5 Reagents
C5.1 Test waters
C5.1.1 General
C5.1.2 Chlorine-free test water
C5.1.3 Chlorinated test water
C5.1.4 Sodium hypochlorite solution
C5.2 Distilled water
C6 Apparatus
C7 Selection of taste panellists
C7.1 Taste panel requirements
C7.2 Initial sensitivity test
C7.2.1 Preparation of taste samples
C7.2.2 Threshold taste test
C7.2.3 Selection
C7.3 Regular assessment
C7.4 Personal logs
C8 Cross-contamination of samples
C9 Test procedure
C9.1 Extraction
C9.1.1 General
C9.1.2 Further extractions
C9.2 Taste test dilutions
C9.3 Tasting procedure
C9.3.1 Temperature of test solution
C9.3.2 Assessment of extract(s) and their dilutions by the panel
C9.3.3 Repeat testing
C9.4 Extraction procedure using chlorinated water
C9.4.1 General
C9.4.2 Preparation of dilutions from chlorinated water extracts
C9.4.3 Tasting procedure
C10 Expression of results
C10.1 Validation
C10.2 Expression of results
C11 Test report
C12 List of tastes
Appendix D
D1 Scope
D2 Principle
D3 Reagents
D3.1 Test water
D3.2 Colour matching solutions
D3.3 Formazine solutions
D4 Apparatus
D5 Samples
D6 Test procedure
D6.1 General
D6.2 Further extracts
D7 Measurement of colour and turbidity
D8 Calculations
D9 Test report
Appendix E
E1 Scope
E2 Introduction
E3 Principle
E4 Test premises
E5 Safety
E6 Reagents
E6.1 General
E6.2 Inoculum water
E6.3 Test water
E6.3.1 General
E6.3.2 Deficiency of total oxidized nitrogen or phosphate
E6.3.3 Excess of free residual chlorine
E7 Apparatus
E8 Samples
E8.1 General requirements
E8.2 Reference materials
E9 Test procedures
E9.1 Preparation of the test system
E9.1.1 General
E9.1.2 Cementitious samples and samples containing bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal compounds
E9.1.3 Samples applied to metal fittings: jointing compounds, solder fluxes and anaerobic adhesives
E9.2 Incubation
E9.3 Assessment of microbial growth
E9.4 Measurement of dissolved oxygen for lubricants and lubricated materials
E9.4.1 Introduction
E9.4.2 Measurement
E10 Expression of results
E10.1 Calculation of results
E10.2 Validation of results
E10.3 Precision
E11 Application of scaling factor
E12 Test report
Appendix F
F1 Scope
F2 Principle
F2.1 General
F2.2 Qualitative determination of cytotoxicity by microscopy
F2.3 Quantitative determination of cytotoxicity by endpoint assay
F3 Test premises
F4 Reagents
F4.1 Test water
F4.2 Distilled water (for the preparation of media)
F4.3 Media
F4.3.1 General
F4.3.2 Growth medium
F4.3.3 Concentrated growth medium
F4.3.4 Phenol red solution (0.2% w/V)
F4.3.5 Sodium bicarbonate buffer solution containing 0.01% (w/V) phenol red
F4.3.6 Cell culture phosphate-buffered saline solution (CC-PBS)
F4.3.7 Standard toxicant for qualitative method-zinc sulfate solution (4 mM)
F4.3.8 Standard toxicant for quantitative method-nickel nitrate solution (10 mM)
F4.4 Cell line
F5 Apparatus
F6 Test samples
F7 Test procedure
F7.1 Introduction
F7.2 Growth and maintenance of the cell line
F7.3 Preparation and enumeration of the cell suspension
F7.4 Extraction procedure
F7.5 Growth procedure
F7.5.1 Qualitative method
F7.5.2 Quantitative method (e.g. MTT endpoint assay)
F7.6 Qualitative microscopic examination
F7.7 Quantitation of cell death via an endpoint assay
F7.8 Expression of results
F7.8.1 Qualitative method
F7.8.1.1 Validation of the qualitative microscopic examination
F7.8.1.2 Interpretation of the qualitative microscopic examination
F7.8.2 Quantitative method
F7.8.2.1 Generation of a standard concentration response curve of the cells to nickel nitrate
F7.8.2.2 Validation of the quantitative endpoint
F7.8.2.3 Calculation of the % cell death from the quantitative method
F7.8.2.4 Interpretation of the quantitative method
F8 Test report
Appendix G
G1 Scope
G2 Principle
G3 Test premises
G4 Reagents
G4.1 Test water
G4.2 Distilled water (for preparation of media)
G4.3 Control mutagens
G4.4 Medium
G4.5 Bacteria
G4.5.1 General
G4.5.2 Salmonella typhimurium
G4.5.3 Escherichia coli
G4.5.4 Metabolic activation
G5 Apparatus
G6 Test samples
G7 Test procedure
G7.1 Introduction
G7.2 Extraction procedure
G7.3 Modified Ames test
G7.4 Controls
G7.5 Interpretation of results
G8 Test report
Appendix H
H1 Scope
H2 Limit of detection and sensitivity
H3 Principle
H4 Reagents
H4.1 Test water
H4.2 Nitric acid, ρ20 1.42 g/mL
H4.3 Nitric acid, 10% by volume
H5 Apparatus
H6 Test samples
H6.1 General requirements
H6.2 Number of tests
H7 Test procedure
H7.1 Extraction
H7.1.1 General
H7.1.2 Repeat extractions
H7.1.3 Blank tests
H7.2 Determination of extracted metals
H8 Expression of results
H9 Test report
Appendix I
I1 Scope
I2 Principle
I3 Apparatus
I4 Reagents (for Test Procedure I6.3)
I4.1 Test water
I4.2 Methanol
I5 Test fittings (for Test Procedure I6.3)
I6 Test procedure
I6.1 Test procedure for extracts for Appendices C and D
I6.2 Test procedure for extracts for Appendices F and G
I6.3 Test procedure for extracts for Appendix H
I7 Expression of results
I8 Test report
Appendix J
J1 Scope
J2 Principle
J3 Apparatus
J4 Samples
J5 Test procedure
J5.1 Extraction temperature
J5.2 Extraction procedure
J5.3 Testing
J6 Expression of results
J7 Test report
Appendix K
K1 Scope
K2 Principle
K3 Reagents
K3.1 Test water
K4 Test procedure
K4.1 Installation
K4.2 Test method
K4.2.1 Test unit preparation
K4.2.1.1 General
K4.2.1.2 Instantaneous water heaters
K4.2.1.3 Storage (including solar) water heaters
K4.2.1.4 Water heaters incorporating a heat exchanger
K4.2.1.5 Free-vented/push-through water heaters
K4.2.2 Sample extraction procedure (after preparation of unit)
K4.2.2.1 Instantaneous water heaters
K4.2.2.2 Storage water heaters (including solar)
K4.2.2.3 Water heaters incorporating a heat exchanger
K4.2.2.4 Free-vented/push-through water heaters
K5 Expression of results
K6 Test report
Appendix L
L1 General
L2 General information
L3 Applied materials
L4 Simulated samples
L5 Scaling factors
L6 Other information
L7 Identification
Appendix M
M1 Scope
M2 General
M3 Typical examples of simulated samples
M4 Special issues
M5 Component documentation
M6 Acceptance
Appendix N
N1 General
N2 Test report information
N3 General information
N4 Specific information
N4.1 Appendix C (taste)
N4.2 Appendix D (appearance)
N4.3 Appendix E (growth of aquatic micro-organisms)
N4.4 Appendix F (cytotoxic activity)
N4.5 Appendix G (mutagenic activity)
N4.6 Appendix H (extraction of metals)
N4.7 EPA 8260B and EPA 8270D (organic compounds) and Appendix D (appearance)
Appendix O
O1 Retesting due to a product change
O1.1 Metallic products
O1.2 Inorganic products
O1.3 Polymeric products
Appendix P
Appendix Q
Appendix R
R1 Introduction
R2 Rationale for testing products in contact with drinking water
R3 Product regulatory control and certification
R4 Types of products
R5 Submission and selection of products for testing
R6 Estimating the surface area-to-volume ratio and use of scaling factors
Amendment control sheet
AS/NZS 4020:2018
Amendment No. 1 (2022)
Correction amendment
Cited references in this standard
Polyethylene (PE) pipes for pressure applications
Polyethylene (PE) compounds for pressure pipes and fittings
Polybutylene (PB) plumbing pipe systems, Part 1: Polybutylene (PB) pipe extrusion compounds
Fittings for polyethylene (PE) pipes for pressure applications
Acrylonitrile butadine styrene (ABS) compounds, pipes and fittings for pressure applications
Content history
DR AS/NZS 4020:2017