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AS/NZS 2885.1:2018


Pipelines — Gas and liquid petroleum, Part 1: Design and construction

This Standard specifies requirements for design and construction of onshore carbon and carbon-manganese steel PIPELINE SYSTEMS that are used to transport single-phase and multi-phase hydrocarbon fluids, such as natural and manufactured gas, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gasoline, crude oil, natural gas liquids and liquid petroleum products.
Published: 03/12/2018
Pages: 280
Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
About this publication
1 Scope and general
1.1 Scope
1.2 Approval
1.3 Application
1.4 Normative references
1.5 Retrospective application
1.6 Definitions
1.7 Symbols and units
1.8 Abbreviations
2 Safety and environment
2.1 Basis of Section
2.2 Pipeline system safety
2.3 Electrical
2.4 Construction and commissioning
2.4.1 Construction safety
2.4.2 Testing safety
2.4.3 Commissioning safety
2.5 Environmental management
3 Pipeline materials
3.1 Basis of Section
3.2 Qualification of materials
3.2.1 General
3.2.2 Materials conforming with nominated Standards
3.2.3 Materials conforming with Standards not nominated in this Standard
3.2.4 Components for which no standard exists
3.2.5 Reclaimed pipe
3.2.6 Reclaimed components
3.2.7 Pressure test
3.3 Identification of materials
3.4 Additional requirements for components to be welded
3.5 Additional mechanical property requirements
3.5.1 Yield strength
3.5.2 Pipe yield to tensile ratio
3.5.3 Strength de-rating
3.5.4 Fracture toughness
3.5.5 Tensile data for Type 2 and Type 3 strength tests
3.6 Requirements for temperature affected items
3.6.1 General
3.6.2 Items heated subsequent to manufacture
3.6.3 Pipe operated at elevated temperatures
3.6.4 Pipe exposed to cryogenic temperatures
3.7 Materials traceability and records
4 Pipeline system design
4.1 Basis of Section
4.2 System design
4.2.1 Design basis
4.2.2 Maximum velocity
4.2.3 Design for in-line inspection
4.3 Pressures
4.3.1 Pressure design Internal pressure External pressure
4.3.2 Hydraulic design Steady state conditions Transient conditions
4.3.3 Maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP)
4.3.4 Minimum strength test pressure
4.4 Design temperatures
4.5 Low temperature excursions
4.6 Design life
4.7 Route
4.7.1 General
4.7.2 Land use investigation
4.7.3 Route selection
4.7.4 Route identification and communication
4.8 Isolation
4.8.1 General
4.8.2 Isolation plan
4.8.3 Isolation valves
4.9 Provisions for high consequence areas
4.9.1 General
4.9.2 No rupture
4.9.3 Maximum energy release rate
4.10 Pipeline marking
4.10.1 General
4.10.2 Sign location
4.10.3 Sign design
5 Pipeline design
5.1 Basis of Section
5.2 Wall thickness
5.2.1 General
5.2.2 Nominal wall thickness (tN)
5.2.3 Required wall thickness (tW)
5.2.4 Wall thickness for design internal pressure (tP)
5.2.5 Wall thickness for design internal pressure of bends
5.2.6 Wall thickness design for external pressure
5.2.7 Allowances (G)
5.2.8 Pipe manufacturing tolerance (H)
5.2.9 Wall thickness summary
5.3 Fracture control
5.3.1 General
5.3.2 Fracture control plan
5.3.3 Minimum fracture toughness Mainline pipe body toughness Pipeline assemblies and components Weld seam toughness
5.3.4 Special fracture control plan cases Prequalified design Pipelines carrying stable liquids Pipelines with low operating stress Pipelines where propagating fracture is controlled by means other than material toughness
5.3.5 Brittle fracture control
5.3.6 Tearing fracture control Calculation of required tearing fracture arrest toughness Calculation of required tearing fracture arrest toughness—Lean gas Testing of tearing fracture resistance Tearing fracture test temperature Tearing fracture toughness specification for mainline pipe purchase
5.3.7 Fracture control—Pipe materials other than butt-welded steel
5.3.8 Alternative fracture control methods
5.4 External interference protection
5.4.1 General
5.4.2 Depth of cover
5.4.3 Depth of cover—Rock trench
5.4.4 Design for protection—General requirements
5.4.5 Physical controls
5.4.6 Procedural controls
5.4.7 Other protection
5.5 Damage resistance
5.5.1 General
5.5.2 Penetration resistance requirements
5.5.3 Calculation of resistance to penetration
5.5.4 Critical defect length
5.6 Prequalified pipeline design
5.6.1 General
5.6.2 Minimum requirements
5.6.3 Prequalified design coverage
5.6.4 Prequalified design does not apply
5.6.5 Prequalified design not permitted
5.6.6 Prequalified design special cases
5.7 Stress and strain
5.7.1 General
5.7.2 Applied loads General Load categories Load types Restraint types Load sources
5.7.3 Stress due to normal loads Pipe stress analysis External load stress analysis
5.7.4 Stresses due to occasional loads
5.7.5 Stresses due to construction Installation loads Pressure testing
5.7.6 Fatigue
5.7.7 Summary of stress limits
5.7.8 Plastic strain and limit state design methodologies
5.8 Special construction
5.8.1 General
5.8.2 Above-ground piping
5.8.3 Pipeline with reduced cover or above-ground
5.8.4 Tunnels and shafts
5.8.5 Trenchless crossings
5.8.6 Submerged crossings General Design
5.8.7 Pipeline attached to a bridge
5.8.8 Road and railway reserves
5.8.9 Land instability and seismic design
5.9 Pipeline assemblies
5.9.1 General
5.9.2 Scraper assemblies
5.9.3 Mainline valve assemblies
5.9.4 Isolating valve assemblies
5.9.5 Pipe separator assemblies
5.9.6 Branch connection assemblies
5.9.7 Attachment of pads, lugs and other welded connections
5.10 Jointing
5.10.1 General
5.10.2 Welded joints
5.10.3 Flanged joints
5.10.4 Threaded fittings
5.10.5 Other types
5.11 Supports and anchors
5.11.1 General
5.11.2 Settlement, scour, and erosion
5.11.3 Design
5.11.4 Forces on an above-ground pipeline
5.11.5 Attachment of anchors, supports and clamps
5.11.6 Restraint due to soil friction
5.11.7 Anchorage at a connection
5.11.8 Support of branch connections
5.12 Design for pressure testing
5.12.1 General
5.12.2 Pressure test design requirements General Preliminary pressure test design Final pressure test design and conformance
5.12.3 Strength test types
5.12.4 Material data requirements for each test type
5.12.5 Design requirements for each strength test type Type 1 test Type 2 test Type 3 test
5.12.6 Pressure test section design
5.12.7 Special pressure test design considerations Test headers Preliminary tests and pretested pipe Above-ground pipe sections Pressure testing of assemblies
6 Station design
6.1 Basis of Section
6.2 Design
6.2.1 Location
6.2.2 Layout
6.2.3 Other considerations
6.2.4 Safety Hazardous areas Personnel protection Fire protection Earthing/lightning Lighting Fencing and exits Venting Shutdown system Marking
6.3 Station piping
6.3.1 Design standard
6.3.2 Pipework subject to vibration
6.4 Station equipment
6.4.1 General
6.4.2 Pressure vessels
6.4.3 Proprietary equipment
6.4.4 Equipment isolation
6.4.5 Station valves
6.5 Structures
6.5.1 General
6.5.2 Buildings
6.5.3 Below-ground structures
6.5.4 Corrosion protection
6.5.5 Electrical installations
6.5.6 Drainage General Process liquids Rainfall runoff Oily water Sewage Equipment below-ground
7 Instrumentation and control design
7.1 Basis of Section
7.2 Control and management of pipeline system
7.2.1 Pipeline pressure control General MAOP under steady state conditions Pressure control system performance Shut-in conditions Safety
7.2.2 Separation of pipeline sections with different MAOP
7.2.3 Temperature control
7.2.4 Pipeline facility control
7.3 Fluid property limits
7.4 Supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA)
7.5 Communication
7.6 Control facilities
8 Mitigation of corrosion
8.1 Basis of Section
8.1.1 General
8.1.2 Materials applicability
8.2 Personnel
8.3 Assessment of corrosion mechanisms
8.3.1 General
8.3.2 Internal corrosion Gas pipelines Liquid hydrocarbon pipelines
8.3.3 External corrosion General Alternating current (AC) corrosion Above-ground corrosion
8.3.4 Environmentally assisted cracking
8.3.5 Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC)
8.4 Corrosion mitigation methods
8.4.1 General
8.4.2 Corrosion mitigation methods
8.5 Internal corrosion mitigation
8.5.1 General
8.5.2 Internal anti-corrosion lining
8.5.3 Corrosion inhibitors and biocides
8.6 External corrosion mitigation
8.6.1 General
8.6.2 External anti-corrosion coating General Coating selection and specification Joint and repair coatings
8.6.3 Cathodic protection Cathodic protection system requirements Pipeline system design for cathodic protection
8.7 Corrosion allowance
8.7.1 General
8.7.2 Internal corrosion allowance
8.7.3 External corrosion allowance
8.8 Corrosion monitoring design
9 Upgrade of maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP)
9.1 Basis of Section
9.2 MAOP upgrade process
9.2.1 Process stages
9.2.2 Upgrade design basis
9.2.3 Data collection
9.2.4 Engineering analysis
9.2.5 Safety management study
9.2.6 Rectification
9.2.7 Revised MAOP
9.2.8 Approval
9.2.9 Commissioning and testing
9.2.10 Records
10 Construction
10.1 Basis of Section
10.2 Pre-construction safety management study
10.3 Construction
10.4 Location record
10.4.1 General
10.4.2 Pre-works survey
10.4.3 As-built survey
10.4.4 Trenchless construction survey
10.5 Pipe and materials—Haulage and stringing
10.5.1 General
10.5.2 Pipe transport
10.5.3 Construction loads
10.5.4 Stringing of pipe on right-of-way
10.6 Clear and grade
10.7 Changes in direction (bends)
10.7.1 Accepted methods for changes in direction
10.7.2 Internal access
10.7.3 Changing direction at a butt weld
10.7.4 Bend fabricated from a forged bend or an elbow
10.7.5 Roped bends
10.7.6 Induction bends
10.7.7 Cold-field bends General Qualification of cold-field bending procedure Acceptance limits for cold-field bends
10.8 Trench excavation
10.8.1 Separation of topsoil
10.8.2 Dimensions of trenches
10.8.3 Bottoms of trenches
10.8.4 Scour prevention
10.9 Joining of pipe and welding to line pipe
10.9.1 Welded joints
10.9.2 Flanged joints
10.9.3 Attachment of electrical conductors
10.10 Joint coating
10.11 Lower-in and backfill
10.11.1 General
10.11.2 Pipe installation requirements
10.11.3 Specifications and procedures for installation
10.12 Special construction
10.12.1 Underground structures
10.12.2 Casings, culverts, tunnels and slabs
10.12.3 Submerged crossings
10.12.4 Trenchless installations
10.12.5 Construction at stations
10.12.6 Electrical equipment installed in hazardous areas
10.12.7 System controls
10.13 Reinstatement
10.14 Preparation for pressure testing and handover
10.14.1 Cleaning and gauging pipelines
10.14.2 As-builts and recordkeeping
10.14.3 Cathodic protection system
11 Inspections and testing
11.1 Basis of Section
11.2 Personnel
11.3 Inspection and test plans and procedures
11.4 Construction inspection and assessment
11.4.1 General
11.4.2 Coating inspection
11.4.3 Ovality
11.4.4 Buckles
11.4.5 Dents
11.4.6 Gouges, grooves and notches
11.4.7 Laminations and notches
11.5 Repair of pipe defects
11.6 Coating integrity testing
11.7 Field pressure testing
11.7.1 Application
11.7.2 Exemptions from a field pressure test
11.7.3 Preliminary test
11.7.4 Test procedure
11.7.5 Strength test pressures
11.7.6 Testing with air or gas General Safety Limitation
11.7.7 Pressure test acceptance criteria
11.8 Commencement of patrolling
12 Commissioning
12.1 Basis of Section
12.2 General
12.3 Planning
12.3.1 General
12.3.2 Activities requiring special consideration General Integrity management Emergency response Impact on the environment
12.4 Design and construction records
12.5 Training
12.6 Safety tag system
12.7 Pre-commisisoning
12.7.1 General
12.7.2 Documentation and handover for commissioning
12.7.3 Design and construction errors—Management and as-building documentation
12.7.4 Cleaning and continuity testing
12.7.5 Equipment pre-commissioning
12.7.6 Control system testing
12.7.7 Pre-commissioning of safety critical devices
12.7.8 Pre-commissioning of SCADA
12.8 Commissioning and testing
12.8.1 General
12.8.2 Pipeline purge and pressurization (gas pipelines)
12.8.3 Filling a liquid petroleum pipeline
12.8.4 Filling a high vapour pressure liquid (HVPL) pipeline General Single component HVPL Multi-component HVPL
12.8.5 Commissioning pressure control and metering equipment
12.8.6 Commissioning SCADA equipment
12.8.7 Commissioning cathodic protection systems
12.9 Performance test
12.10 Handover
12.11 Delayed commencement of operation
13 Documentation
13.1 General
13.2 Records
Appendix A
A1 Applicability
A2 Method for determining tensile properties
Appendix B
B1 Background
B2 Economic and risk considerations
B3 Strength and weldability
B4 Pipeline loads
B5 Pipe coating
B6 Field bending
B7 Induction bending
B8 Pressure testing
B8.1 General
B8.2 Strength data risk
B8.3 Mechanical test information required for field pressure strength testing
B8.3.1 Type 2 field pressure strength test requirements
B8.3.2 Type 3 field pressure strength test requirements
Appendix C
C1 General
C2 The basis of fracture control
C3 Factors affecting brittle and tearing ductile fracture
C3.1 General
C3.2 Fluid parameters
C3.3 Operating parameters
C3.3.1 Introduction
C3.3.2 Brittle fracture
C3.3.3 Ductile tearing
C3.3.4 Temperature
C3.3.5 Limitations on testing
C3.4 Diameter limits
C3.5 Calculation of Charpy energy requirements for the arrest of ductile tearing fracture
C4 Guidance on test temperature specification
C5 Other considerations
C5.1 Smaller diameter—High pressure pipe
C5.2 Decompression behaviour and rich and multi-phase gases
C6 References
Appendix D
D1 Scope
D2 Sampling
D3 Fracture appearance testing for control of brittle fracture
D3.1 General
D3.2 Test specimens
D3.3 Test temperature
D3.4 Criteria of acceptance
D4 Energy absorption testing for control of low energy tearing ductile fracture
D4.1 General
D4.2 Test specimens
D4.3 Test temperature
D4.4 Adjustment for specimen thickness
Appendix E
E1 General
E2 Application
E2.1 Uncertainty
E2.2 New knowledge
E2.3 New pipelines
E2.4 Existing pipelines
E3 Calculations
E4 Threat investigation and tooth types
E5 Tooth and hole dimensions
E6 Tool force
E7 Factor B
E8 Australian field trials
E9 Worked example
E9.1 Calculations
E9.2 Interpretation
E9.3 Application to new pipelines
E9.4 Application to existing pipeline
E9.4.1 General
E9.4.2 Energy release assessment
E9.4.3 Rupture assessment
Appendix F
F1 General
F2 Terminology
F2.1 Variables
F2.2 Modifiers
F3 Stress from forces and moments
F4 Stress due to pressure
F4.1 General
F4.2 Hoop stress
F4.3 Radial stress
F4.4 Longitudinal stress
F4.4.1 General
F4.4.2 Restrained and unrestrained pipe solutions
F4.4.3 Partially restrained pipe
F4.5 Other pressure effects
F5 Stress due to temperature
F6 Combined stress
F6.1 Equivalent stress
F6.2 Expansion stress
Appendix G
G1 General
G2 API RP 1102
G3 Load situations
G4 Vehicle loads
G5 Equivalent API RP 1102 loads
G6 Other design methods
Appendix H
H1 General
H2 Example 1: Fully-restrained pipe operating envelope
H3 Example 2: End of line forces
Appendix I
I1 General
I2 Failure modes and criteria
I3 Hoop stress
I4 Longitudinal stress
I4.1 Unrestrained pipe
I4.2 Restrained pipe
I4.3 Partially-restrained pipe
I5 Use of stress analysis software
Appendix J
J1 General
J2 Pressure cycle fatigue
J2.1 General
J2.2 Materials
J2.3 Definition of fatigue life
J2.4 Design
J2.4.1 Simplified screening criteria
J2.4.2 Detailed fracture life assessment using fracture mechanics approach
J2.5 Definition of stress cycles
J2.6 Revalidation
J3 Acoustically and flow induced vibration
Appendix K
K1 Land instability design—Introdction
K2 Seismic fault displacement
K3 Seismic wave propagation
K4 Ground shaking and above ground facilities
K5 Differential ground movement
K5.1 Differential ground movement threat identification
K5.2 Differential ground movement threat mitigation
K5.3 Differential ground movement form
K6 Further pipeline considerations in areas of geotechnical concerns
K6.1 Pipeline load condition
K6.2 Pipeline flexibility, un-anchored length and restraint
K6.3 Pipeline material strength, elongation and yield to tensile ratio
K6.4 Girth weld strength
K6.5 Pipeline leak detection and isolation facilities
K6.6 Coating selection
K6.7 Pipeline as-built survey
K6.8 Local pipeline monitoring
Appendix L
L1 Scope
L2 Reinforcement of single welded branch connections
L3 Reinforcement of multiple openings
L3.1 Overlapping of effective reinforcement areas
L3.2 Minimum distance between adjacent openings
L3.3 Closely spaced openings
L4 Extruded outlet
Appendix M
M1 General
M2 Engineering software
M3 Use of finite element analysis (FEA) as an alternative to engineering software
M4 Strain to failure
M5 Data requirements
M6 Method of generating a stress-strain curve based on ring expansion (RE) and flattened bar transverse (FBT) tensile testing
M7 Engineering software
Appendix N
N1 General
N2 Internal corrosion
N3 External corrosion
N4 Environmentally assisted cracking
N5 Corrosion prior to commissioning
Appendix O
O1 General
O2 High pH (classical) stress corrosion cracking
O2.1 Description
O2.2 Conditions
O3 Near-neutral (low pH) stress corrosion cracking
O3.1 Description
O3.2 Conditions
O4 Hydrogen sulfide cracking
O4.1 General
O4.2 Hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC)
O4.3 Sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC)
O5 Hydrogen-assisted cold cracking (HACC)
O6 Design considerations to mitigate stress-corrosion cracking
O6.1 General
O6.2 Stress
O6.3 Cyclic variation of stress
O6.4 Pipeline anti-corrosion coating
O6.5 Age of pipeline
O6.6 Soil environment
O6.7 Surface preparation
O6.8 Cathodic protection system
O6.9 Pipe wall temperature
O7 References
Appendix P
Appendix Q
Q1 General
Q1.1 Introduction
Q1.2 Powerline effects
Q1.3 Mitigative measures
Q2 Acceptance voltage limits
Q3 Assessment of hazard
Appendix R
R1 Introduction
R2 Basis of requirements for cold field bends
R3 Objectives
R4 Suggested method
Appendix S
S1 Introduction
S2 Pipe properties
S2.1 Physical properties
S2.2 Damage
S2.3 Failure modes
S3 Pipe specification
S3.1 Pressure definition
S3.2 Process conditions
S3.3 Pressure test conditions
S3.4 Bends
S3.5 Pressure design
S3.6 Joint selection
S4 Pipe manufacture
S4.1 Pipe standards
S4.2 Shop pressure testing
S4.3 Quality records
S5 Pipeline design
S5.1 General
S5.2 Physical properties of the pipe required for design and analysis
S5.3 Structural design
S5.4 Transient loads
S5.5 Load combinations
S5.6 High temperature design
S5.7 Design tools
S5.8 Burial and crossing design
S5.9 Environmental loads
S5.10 External interference risk
S5.11 Static electricity
S5.12 Fire
S5.13 Hazardous area classification
S6 Pipeline construction
S6.1 General
S6.2 Competence and training
S6.3 Receipt, storage and handling
S6.4 Installation
S6.5 Supervision and inspection
S6.6 Quality records
S6.7 Pressure testing
S6.8 Pigging and gauging
S7 Maintenance
S7.1 Repair methods
Appendix T
T1 General
T1.1 Scope
T1.2 Characteristics of CO2
T2 Safety
T2.1 General
T2.2 CO2 release and dispersion behaviour
T2.3 CO2 and H2S health impacts
T2.4 Corrosion risk
T3 Materials and components
T3.1 Pipe and general
T3.2 Non-metallic materials
T3.3 Pipe coating and internal lining
T4 Design—General
T4.1 CO2 process design
T4.2 Pipeline route, location classification and high consequence areas
T4.3 Mainline valves
T4.4 Depressurization and discharge of CO2
T4.5 Repressurization
T4.6 Temperature
T4.7 Stress and strain
T4.8 Design for pressure testing and drying
T5 Fracture control
T5.1 General
T5.2 Fracture control design
T6 Station design
T7 Instrumentation and control design
T8 Mitigation of corrosion
T9 Upgrade of MAOP
T10 Inspection and testing
Cited references in this standard
Technical drawing, Part 401: Engineering survey and engineering survey design drawing
Pipelines — Gas and liquid petroleum, Part 4: Submarine Pipeline Systems
Pressure equipment — In-service inspection
Electrical installations (known as the Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules)
Pipelines — Gas and liquid petroleum, Part 6: Pipeline safety management
Content history
[Available Superseded]
DR AS/NZS 2885.1:2018
DR AS/NZS 2885.1:2017
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