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AS/NZS 1547:2012


On-site domestic wastewater management

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AS/NZS 1547:2012 provides the requirements for treatment units and their respective land application systems to achieve sustainable and effective on-site domestic wastewater management, to protect public health and the environment. This Standard identifies the performance statements that cover the overall design and sustainable management of on-site domestic wastewater systems.
Published: 27/02/2012
Pages: 204
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Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
About this publication
1 General
1.1 Purpose of Standard
1.2 Scope
1.2.1 Inclusions Systems covered System size
1.2.2 Exclusions
1.3 Application
1.3.1 Users of this Standard
1.3.2 Requirements for sustainable functioning of on-site systems
1.4 Risk management framework
1.5 Structure of this Standard
1.6 Interpretation
1.7 Referenced documents
1.8 Legislation
1.8.1 Australia
1.8.2 New Zealand New Zealand Building Code Resource Management Act
1.9 Definitions
1.10 Abbreviations
1.11 Conversion of per cent grade, slope, and gradient
2 Risk management process
2.1 Scope
2.2 Performance requirement
2.3 The risk management process
2.4 Implementing risk management
2.4.1 Protection of public health and the environment
2.4.2 Organisational performance
2.5 Review and evaluation
3 Roles and responsibilities
3.1 The regulatory authority
3.2 Planners/surveyors/land developers
3.3 Site evaluators and soil assessors
3.4 Designers
3.5 Installation contractors
3.6 Equipment manufacturers and suppliers
3.7 Maintenance and desludging/pumpout contractors
3.8 Property owners
3.9 Estate agents and property transfer agents
4 Performance statements
4.1 Primary performance objectives
4.1.1 Public health
4.1.2 Environment
4.1.3 Community amenity
4.1.4 Resource utilisation
4.2 Secondary performance objectives
4.2.1 Site-and-soil evaluation
4.2.2 Wastewater treatment systems
4.2.3 Land application systems
4.2.4 Construction and installation
4.2.5 Operation and maintenance
4.3 Primary performance requirements
4.3.1 Public health and environment
4.3.2 Community amenity
4.3.3 Resource utilisation
5 Design of on-site systems
5.1 Scope
5.1.1 Overview
5.2 Site-and-soil evaluation
5.2.1 Performance requirements for site-and-soil evaluation
5.2.2 Site-and-soil evaluation General methodology Types of site-and-soil evaluation Site-and-soil evaluation procedure – Summary Extent and intensity of site-and-soil evaluation Timing of site-and-soil evaluation
5.2.3 Results of site-and-soil evaluation Determination of soil category Design loading/irrigation rate
5.2.4 Reporting
5.3 Design flow
5.4 Wastewater treatment units
5.4.1 Performance requirements for wastewater treatment units Capacity Structural design Solids management Effluent quality and land application Alternative toilet systems
5.4.2 Performance criteria for wastewater treatment units Design flow Capacity of septic tanks Capacity requirements Capacity of septic tanks – Restricted water supply Food waste disposal units Holding tanks Wastewater treatment units other than septic tanks Disinfection Performance criteria for disinfection
5.5 Land application system design
5.5.1 Performance requirements for land application system design
5.5.2 Design process
5.5.3 Land application system design criteria Minimum design requirements Design output Siting considerations Reserve area Distribution system Stormwater control Land use activity
5.5.4 Considerations for land application system design System selection considerations Limiting site-and-soil factors Site Soil
5.5.5 Soils and LTAR/DLR/DIR values Soil category/DLR/DIR values Restrictive soil conditions Improving LTAR Evapotranspiration
5.5.6 Contaminants Nutrients Pathogens
5.5.7 Reporting
6 Construction, installation, operation, and maintenance
6.1 Scope
6.2 Construction and installation
6.2.1 Performance requirements Site work Distribution system
6.2.2 Construction of on-site systems Wastewater treatment units Land application systems
6.2.3 Installation of on-site systems Siting Pumpout Soil Surface water Drainage lines
6.2.4 Installation instructions Instructions Repairs
6.2.5 Commissioning and inspections Installation and validation Commissioning of pump systems Other equipment Installation and commissioning report(s) Manuals
6.3 Operation, maintenance, and monitoring
6.3.1 General
6.3.2 Performance requirements for operation, maintenance, and monitoring
6.3.3 Operation and maintenance procedures
6.3.4 Copy of operation and maintenance guidelines
6.3.5 Monitoring General Monitoring frequency Community-wide schemes Individual systems Operation and maintenance record sheets Maintenance certificate
6.3.6 Health
6.3.7 Incidents and emergencies
7 Administrative guidance
7.1 Administration and management
7.2 Construction, installation, and operation
7.3 Advice and education
7.4 Reports
7.4.1 Site-and-soil evaluation report
7.4.2 Design report
7.4.3 Installation and commissioning report(s)
7.4.4 Maintenance report
Appendix A
A1 Scope
A2 Context
A3 Risk management process
A3.1 Introduction
A3.2 Steps in the risk management process
A3.2.1 Communicate and consult
A3.2.2 Establish the context
A3.2.3 Identify risks
A3.2.4 Analyse risks
A3.2.5 Evaluate risks
A3.2.6 Reduce risks
A3.2.7 Monitor and review
A4 Risk management examples
Appendix B
B1 Scope
B2 Desktop study
B2.1 Objective
B2.2 Groundwater
B2.3 Site plans
B3 Site-and-soil check (SSC)
B3.1 Matters to be considered
B3.2 Reporting
B4 Soil assessment
B4.1 General
B4.2 Soil inspection procedures
B4.3 Assessment of soil properties
B4.4 Reporting
B5 Dispersive soils
B5.1 General
B5.2 Reclassification of dispersive soils
B6 Soil permeability measurement
B7 Reporting
Appendix C
C1 Scope
C2 General
C3 Site-and-soil evaluation
C3.1 Terrain-soil combinations
C3.2 Land surface shape
C3.3 Gradient
C3.4 Water
C3.5 Soil inspection
C3.5.1 Personnel
C3.5.2 Soil survey
C3.5.3 Favourable land
C3.5.4 Soil sampling and inspection
C3.6 Unfavourable land
C3.7 Low environmental risk
C3.8 Final plan
C3.9 Final plan report
Appendix D
D1 Scope
D2 Site assessment
D2.1 General
D2.2 Preliminary interpretation
D3 Soil assessment for individual lots
D3.1 Soil data collection procedures
D3.1.1 Standard procedure
D3.1.2 Modified procedure
D3.2 Inspection record or log
D4 Reserve land application area
D5 Unfavourable results
D6 Site report
Appendix E
E1 Scope
E2 Assessment of site exposure
E3 Assessment of soil colour
E4 Assessment of soil texture
E4.1 Field assessment
E4.2 Laboratory assessment
E5 Assessment of coarse fragments
E5.1 General
E5.2 Abundance
E5.3 Size
E5.4 Relevance and impact
E6 Assessment of soil structure
E7 Assessment of soil dispersion
E8 Assessment of areal porosity
Appendix F
F1 Scope
F2 Discussion
Appendix G
G1 Scope
G2 Principle
G3 Apparatus
G4 Test procedure
G4.1 Single test holes
G4.2 Multiple test holes
G5 Test results
G6 Test calculation
G7 Test records
Appendix H
H1 Scope
H2 Design flow and peak occupancy
Appendix J
J1 Scope
J2 Context of use
J3 Septic tank capacities
J3.1 Service time
J3.2 All-waste septic tank capacities
J3.3 Greywater septic tank capacities
J3.4 Blackwater septic tank capacities
J4 Pumpout frequency
Appendix K
K1 Scope
K2 Application
K3 Limitations due to site, soil, and climatic factors
K3.1 General
K3.2 Salinisation
K3.3 Modifications to systems
K3.4 System options
K3.5 Setback distances
K4 Selecting the land application system to fit the site and the soil
Appendix L
L1 General
L2 Selection of DLR values
L3 Plants
L4 Design area sizing
L4.1 General
L4.2 Sizing
L5 Construction and installation
L5.1 General
L5.2 Dimensions
L5.3 Construction details
L5.4 Surface water
L6 Effluent loading
L6.1 Gravity loading effluent
L6.1.1 Trench or bed length
L6.1.2 Distribution pipe
L6.1.3 Arches
L6.2 Discharge control trench effluent loading method for category 1 soil
L6.3 Dose loading of effluent
L7 Construction techniques
L7.1 Good construction technique
L7.2 Dispersive soil
L7.3 Filling trenches and beds
L8 Installation – Pipe laying
L9 Inspection
L10 Pre-commissioning tests
L11 Commissioning
L12 Marking
L13 Reporting
Appendix M
M1 General
M2 Effluent quality requirements
M2.1 Covered surface drip and shallow subsurface drip irrigation
M2.2 Spray irrigation
M2.3 LPED irrigation
M2.4 E. coli
M3 Drip irrigation (secondary effluent)
M3.1 Shallow subsurface drip irrigation
M3.2 Covered surface drip irrigation
M4 Spray irrigation (disinfected secondary effluent)
M5 LPED irrigation (primary and secondary effluent)
M6 Irrigation system design
M6.1 General
M6.2 Design irrigation rate
M7 Irrigation area
M7.1 General
M7.2 Designated area
M8 Spray irrigation
M9 Construction
M9.1 General
M9.2 Setbacks
M9.3 Sloping sites
M9.4 Distribution Systems
M9.4.1 LPED irrigation
M9.4.2 Covered surface drip
M9.4.3 Spray
M10 Installation
M10.1 Pump system
M10.2 Pipework
M10.3 Solids, soil, and water
M11 Pre-commissioning tests
M11.1 Drip irrigation
M11.2 LPED irrigation
M12 Commissioning
M13 Marking
M14 Reporting
Appendix N
N1 General
N2 Design
N2.1 Sizing
N2.2 Application rates
N3 Construction and installation
N3.1 Site protection
N3.2 Construction preparation
N3.3 Construction of the mound
N3.3.1 Delivery pipe
N3.3.2 Sand-fill media
N3.3.3 Distribution bed
N3.3.4 Effluent distribution network
N3.3.5 Pre-commissioning tests
N3.3.6 Finish of distribution bed
N4 Commissioning
N5 Reporting
Appendix P
P1 Chlorination
P1.1 Disinfection apparatus
P1.2 Chlorine dosing
P1.3 Monitoring and maintenance
P2 Ultraviolet
P2.1 Disinfection apparatus
P2.2 Maintenance
Appendix Q
Q1 Scope
Q2 General
Q3 Land application water-balance
Q4 Water-balance and primary treated effluent
Q4.1 General
Q4.2 Trenches and beds
Q4.3 Evapotranspiration/absorption/seepage systems
Q4.4 Mounds
Q4.5 LPED irrigation
Q5 Water-balance and secondary treated effluent
Q5.1 Secondary effluent quality
Q5.2 Subsurface drip irrigation
Q5.3 Covered surface drip irrigation and spray irrigation
Appendix R
R1 Scope
R2 Application
R3 References/guidelines used in the development of these setback distances
Appendix S
S1 Scope
S2 Sources of nitrogen and phosphorus
S3 Harmful effects
S4 Natural removal mechanisms
S4.1 Phosphorus
S4.2 Nitrogen
S5 Guidelines
S6 Nutrient databases
S7 Removal in treatment facility
Appendix T
T1 Scope
T2 Preparation
T3 Content of operation and maintenance guidelines
T4 On-site system incidents and emergencies
T5 Typical content of operation and maintenance guidelines for householders
T5.1 Description of wastewater treatment and land application systems
T5.1.1 The wastewater treatment unit
T5.1.2 Land application system
T5.1.2.1 Trenches
T5.1.2.2 Beds
T5.1.2.3 Evapotranspiration absorption/seepage systems
T5.1.2.4 Mound systems
T5.1.2.5 Irrigation systems
T5.1.3 Distribution system
T5.1.4 Reserve areas
T5.2 Operation and maintenance requirements
T5.2.1 Advice to a property owner/occupier on use of the system
T5.2.2 Advice on maintenance
T5.2.3 Advice on operating problems
T5.2.4 Consequences of failure
T5.2.5 Advice on property owner/occupier responsibilities
T5.2.6 Advice on alternative on-site systems
Appendix U
U1 Scope
U2 Purpose of the records
U3 Sources of data
U4 Monitoring forms
Appendix V
Cited references in this standard
Content history
DR 07920