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AS 4991-2004

[Pending Revision]

Lifting devices

Specifies requirements for lifting devices able to be connected to a crane hook including spreader beams, magnet lifters, vacuum lifters and friction lifters.
Published: 06/05/2004
Pages: 59
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Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
Header
About this publication
Preface
1 Scope and general
1.1 Scope
1.2 Load designations
1.3 New designs and innovations
1.4 Interpretations
1.5 Referenced documents
1.6 Definitions
2 General design requirements
2.1 General
2.2 Lifting duty
2.2.1 Duty-specific application
2.2.2 Duty-general application
2.2.3 Hazardous and dangerous goods handling (including molten metal)
2.3 Attachment to the crane
2.4 Ergonomics
2.5 Handles
2.6 Multiple load attachment points
2.7 Safety mechanisms
2.8 Risk assessment
3 Gripping devices
3.1 General
3.2 Design
3.2.1 Design factor
3.2.2 Unintentional release
3.2.3 Loss of pneumatic or hydraulic pressure
3.2.4 Multiple gripping devices
3.2.5 Self-latching gripping device
3.2.6 Connection to the crane
3.3 Plate clamps and clamps
3.3.1 Design
3.3.1.1 General
3.3.1.2 Gripping range
3.3.1.3 Hardness of material to be lifted
3.3.1.4 Sling angles
3.3.2 Testing
3.3.2.1 General
3.3.2.2 Type tests
3.3.2.3 Proof testing
3.3.2.3.1 New plate clamps
3.3.2.3.2 Repaired plate clamps
3.3.2.4 Testing acceptance criteria
3.3.3 Markings
3.3.4 Information to be supplied with plate clamps
3.3.5 Maintenance, inspection and repair
3.3.6 Care and use
3.4 Girder clamps
3.4.1 Design
3.4.2 Testing and verification requirements
3.4.2.1 General
3.4.2.2 Proof testing
3.4.2.2.1 Conditions
3.4.2.2.2 Procedure
3.4.2.2.3 Testing acceptance criteria
3.4.2.3 Type tests
3.4.2.3.1 Conditions
3.4.2.3.2 Procedure
3.4.2.3.3 Testing acceptance criteria
3.4.3 Maintenance, inspection and repairs
3.4.4 Care and use
3.5 Tongs
4 Bins
4.1 Design
4.1.1 General
4.1.2 Volume
4.1.3 Bin discharge
4.1.3.1 Discharge mechanism
4.1.3.2 Discharge slides
4.1.4 Baffling
4.2 Set down
4.3 Testing and verification
4.4 Marking
4.5 Information to be supplied with bins
4.6 Maintenance, inspection and repair
4.7 Care and use
5 Vacuum lifting devices
5.1 General
5.2 Vacuum systems
5.2.1 Design factor
5.2.2 Vacuum hoses and lifting tubes
5.2.3 Structure of the vacuum lifter
5.3 Vacuum indicators
5.3.1 General
5.3.2 Non-self-priming vacuum lifters
5.3.3 Self-priming vacuum lifters
5.4 Vacuum loss control and monitoring
5.5 Design for use in proximity to people
5.6 Testing
5.7 Vacuum lifter markings
5.8 Information to be supplied with vacuum lifters
5.9 Maintenance, inspection and repair
5.10 Care and use
6 Lifting magnets
6.1 General
6.2 All types
6.2.1 Load control
6.2.2 Application of magnets
6.2.3 Magnet-load matching
6.2.4 Rated capacity
6.2.5 Variable power supply
6.2.6 Magnet controllers
6.2.7 Magnet circuits
6.2.8 Magnet cables
6.2.9 Magnet power supply couplings
6.3 Battery-powered lifting magnets
6.3.1 Design factor
6.3.2 Battery-low warning
6.3.3 Unsafe start-up prevention
6.3.4 Magnet state indicator
6.4 Mains-powered lifting magnets
6.4.1 General
6.4.2 Rectifiers
6.5 Permanent lifting magnets
6.5.1 General
6.5.2 Tear-off force
6.5.3 Magnetic state indicator
6.5.4 Control safety
6.6 Electro-permanent lifting magnets
6.6.1 Design factor
6.6.2 Magnetic state indicator
6.7 Associated Standards
6.8 Marking
6.9 Magnet testing
6.10 Information to be supplied
6.11 Maintenance, inspection and repair
6.12 Care and use
7 C-hooks
7.1 General
7.2 Design
7.2.1 Load stability
7.2.2 Load security
7.2.3 Protection
7.2.4 Storage
7.3 Testing and verification
7.4 Marking
7.5 Information to be supplied
7.6 Maintenance, inspection and repair
7.7 Care and use
8 Lifting forks
8.1 General
8.2 Design
8.2.1 General
8.2.2 Load stability
8.2.3 Load security
8.2.4 Storage
8.3 Testing and verification
8.4 Marking
8.5 Information to be supplied
8.6 Maintenance, inspection and repair
8.7 Care and use
9 Lifting beams
9.1 General
9.2 Design
9.2.1 Stability
9.2.2 Adjustable beams/attachments
9.2.3 Beams with mechanical devices
9.3 Testing and verification
9.4 Marking
9.5 Information to be supplied
9.6 Maintenance, inspection and repair
9.7 Care and use
10 Ladle handling equipment
10.1 General
10.2 Control of tilting
10.2.1 General
10.2.2 Self‑contained tilting mechanisms
10.3 Measures against detachment of the hangers
10.4 Temperature
10.5 Testing and verification
10.6 Marking
10.7 Information to be supplied
10.8 Maintenance, inspection and repair
10.9 Care and use
11 Bulk material grabs
11.1 General
11.2 Design
11.3 Testing
11.4 Marking
11.5 Information to be supplied
11.6 Maintenance, inspection and repair
11.7 Care and use
12 Testing and verification
12.1 General
12.2 Proof loading
12.2.1 General application lifting devices
12.2.2 Specific application lifting devices
12.2.3 Acceptance criteria
12.3 Alternative verification
13 Equipment markings
13.1 Minimum marking
13.2 Additional marking
13.2.1 General
13.2.2 Specific applications
14 Information to be supplied with lifting devices
14.1 Information—General
14.2 Information—Specific
14.3 Guidance for maintenance
14.4 Verifications and inspections
15 Maintenance, inspection and repair
15.1 Inspections
15.1.1 General
15.1.2 In-service
15.1.3 Periodic
15.1.4 Defects requiring withdrawal from service
15.2 Repair
16 Care and use
16.1 Operation near personnel
16.2 Inspection
16.3 Disposal
Appendix A
Appendix B
B1 Load suspending means and load carrying means
B1.1 Lifting hooks
B1.1.1 Lifting hooks
B1.1.2 Plate shackles
B1.2 Adhesion appliances
B1.2.1 Lifting magnet
B1.2.2 Vacuum lifter
B1.3 Clamps
B1.3.1 General
B1.3.2 Plate clamps
B1.3.3 Girder clamps
B1.4 Tongs
B1.4.1 Lever tongs
B1.4.2 Multiple lever tongs
B1.4.3 Motorized tongs
B1.4.4 Load suspending means—Tongs
B1.4.4.1 Soaking pit tongs
B1.4.4.2 Stripper tongs
B1.4.4.3 Ingot mould tongs
B1.4.4.4 Masonry tongs
B1.5 Container harness (spreader)
B1.5.1 Semi-automatic spreader
B1.5.2 Manually attached spreaders
B1.6 Lifting and spreader beams
B1.6.1 Reeved lifting beams
B1.6.1.1 Lifting with hooks
B1.6.1.2 Lifting beam with slewing gear
B1.6.1.3 Lifting beam with slings
B1.6.1.4 Lifting beam with forks
B1.6.1.5 Lifting beam with adhesion appliance(s)
B1.6.1.6 Lifting beam with slewing gear and adhesion appliance(s)
B1.6.1.7 Lifting beam with tongs
B1.6.2 Detachable lifting and spreader beams
B1.6.2.1 Lifting beam
B1.6.2.2 Lifting stirrup beam
B1.6.2.3 Spreader beam
B1.6.2.4 Lifting beam with hooks
B1.6.2.5 Lifting beam with clamps
B1.6.2.6 Lifting beam with claws
B1.7 Suspension gear and pendants
B1.7.1 Miscellaneous lifting devices
B1.7.1.1 Loading tray
B1.7.1.2 C Hook
B1.7.1.3 Roll changing hook
B1.7.1.4 Lifting rotator
B1.8 Pallet lifters
B1.8.1 Lifting bars
B1.8.2 Pallet lifting forks
B1.8.3 Pallet cages
B2 Lifting devices for bulk goods and bulk materials
B2.1 Grabs
B2.1.1 General
B2.1.2 Clamshell grabs
B2.1.3 Logging (or pipe) tongs
B2.1.4 Grapple grab
B2.2 Bins
B2.2.1 Hinged bin
B2.2.2 Tilting bin
B2.2.3 Bottom discharge bin
B2.2.4 Crane bin
B2.2.5 Kibble
Appendix C
C1 General
C2 Assessment for repair procedure
C3 Alternative recommendations
C3.1 Competent person’s report
C3.2 Management of repairs
C4 Repair work
C5 Welding repair examination
Cited references in this standard
[Pending Revision]
Battery chargers for stationary batteries
[Current]
Approval and test specification — General requirements for electrical equipment
[Current]
General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories
[Superseded]
Risk management
[Superseded]
Electromagnetic compatibility — Generic immunity standard, Part 1: Residential, commercial and light industry
Content history
DR 03001