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AS 3996:2019


Access covers and grates

Specifies requirements for access covers and grates for use in vehicular and pedestrian areas. It applies to single or multi-part access covers and grates, where any single cover does not exceed 1300 mm clear opening. Covers products manufactured from grey and ductile iron, cast and manufactured steel, aluminium, concrete, and polymeric materials.
Published: 22/03/2019
Pages: 46
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Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
About this publication
1 Scope and general
1.1 Scope
1.2 Product conformity
1.3 Normative references
1.4 Definitions
1.5 Classification terminology
1.6 Permanent marking
2 Material requirements
2.1 General
2.2 Cast iron
2.3 Fabricated mild steel
2.4 Stainless steel
2.5 Aluminium
2.6 Concrete for infills
2.7 Precast concrete
2.7.1 General
2.7.2 Reinforcement
2.7.3 General purpose cement and blended cement
2.7.4 Aggregates
2.7.5 Water
2.7.6 Admixtures
2.7.7 Reinforced concrete design
2.7.8 Handling and lifting
2.8 Bolts
2.9 Protective coatings
2.9.1 Cast iron
2.9.2 Steel
2.10 Polymeric materials
3 Design requirements
3.1 Load classification
3.2 Design features
3.2.1 Covers and grates Registers Dislodgment by traffic Dislodgement by internal pressure or flood Security in open position Rocking in the frame Frame bearing area Forge welded steel
3.2.2 Covers Surface finish Ventilated covers Watertight covers and frames Gas-tight covers and frames Recessed covers Lifting keyholes
3.3 Dimensions
3.3.1 Clear opening for persons and equipment
3.3.2 Clearance gaps
3.3.3 Surface tolerances
3.3.4 Surface patterns for pedestrian areas
3.3.5 Relative height of cover or grate to frame
3.3.6 Surface openings in pedestrian areas
3.3.7 Bicycle tyre penetration resistance (BTPR) General Grates with round and flat bars and covers with openings Other configurations
4 Performance requirements
4.1 General
4.1.1 Recessed covers
4.1.2 Test specimen
4.1.3 Galvanized units
4.2 Testing
4.2.1 General
4.2.2 Load resistance General Type test Batch release test
4.2.3 Bicycle tyre penetration resistance test (BTPR) Grates and covers for all directions of traffic Grate or cover and frame units
4.2.4 Watertightness
4.2.5 Gas-tightness
4.2.6 Slip-resistance
4.2.7 Uplift resistance to traffic
4.2.8 Uplift resistance to pressure or flood
4.2.9 Ultra-violet ray resistance
4.2.10 Elevated temperature resistance
4.2.11 Creep resistance
4.2.12 Impact resistance
4.2.13 Fatigue resistance
5 Installation
Appendix A
A1 Scope
A2 Relevance
A3 Definitions
A4 Initial type testing
A5 Minimum sampling and testing frequency plan
A5.1 General
A5.2 Retesting
A5.3 Rejection after test
A5.4 Sampling for batch release testing
Appendix B
B1 General
B2 Information to be supplied by the purchaser
B2.1 General
B2.2 Other marking
B3 Information to be supplied by the manufacturer
Appendix C
C1 General
C2 Apparatus
C3 Procedure
C3.1 Preparation
C3.2 Loads
C3.3 Type test
C3.4 Batch release test
C3.5 Measurement of deflection due to the serviceability design load
C3.6 Measurement of permanent set due to the serviceability design load
C3.7 Application of the ultimate limit state design load
C4 Test reports
C4.1 Type test report
C4.2 Batch release test reports
Appendix D
D1 Scope
D2 Principle
D3 Apparatus
D4 Procedure
D4.1 Preparation
D4.2 Conditioning
D4.3 Gauge penetration of cover or grate in the frame
D4.4 Openings between frame and cover or grate
D4.5 Dynamic penetration procedure
D4.5.1 Test with bike and rider
D4.5.2 Test with wheel held in a frame
D5 Test Reports
Appendix E
E1 Scope
E2 Principle
E3 Apparatus
E4 Procedure
E5 Report
Appendix F
F1 Scope
F2 Principle
F3 Apparatus
F4 Procedure
F5 Report
Appendix G
G1 General
G2 Apparatus
G3 Procedure
G4 Test report
Appendix H
H1 Scope
H2 Test equipment
H3 Test procedure
H4 Test report
Appendix I
I1 Scope
I2 Apparatus
I3 Test procedure
I4 Test report
Appendix J
J1 Scope
J2 Apparatus
J3 Test procedure
J4 Test report
Amendment control sheets
Amendment No. 1 (2021)
Revised text amendment
Amendment No. 2 (2022)
Revised text amendment
Cited references in this standard
Plastics — Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources — Part 3: Fluorescent UV lamps
EN 124-5
Gully tops and manhole tops for vehicular and pedestrian areas, Part 5: Gully tops and manhole tops made of composite materials
Plastics — Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources — Part 2: Xenon-arc lamps
Hot-rolled steel sheet of structural quality
Specification and Supply of concrete
Content history
DR2 AS 3996:2018