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AS 3990-1993

[Current]

Mechanical equipment — Steelwork

Applies to the design, fabrication, erection, repair and alteration of steelwork associated with boilers, pressure vessels, lifts, cranes, mining equipment, gas and liquid petroleum piping systems, bulk handling equipment, and the like in accordance with the working stress design method, but does not apply to road and rail bridges, material less than 3 mm thick, steel for which the design yield stress exceed 450 MPa, and cold-formed members other than those complying with AS 1163.
Published: 17/05/1993
Pages: 82
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Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
Header
About this publication
PREFACE
1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE
1.2 APPLICATION
1.3 STANDARDS
1.4 NEW MATERIALS OR METHODS
1.5 DESIGN AND SUPERVISION
1.5.1 Design
1.5.2 Supervision
1.6 DEFINITIONS
1.6.1 General
1.6.2 Administrative definitions
1.6.3 Technical definitions
1.6.4 Welding terms
1.7 NOTATION
2 MATERIALS
2.1 STRUCTURAL STEEL
2.1.1 Australian Standards
2.1.2 Other structural steels
2.1.3 Acceptance of steels
2.1.4 Unidentified steel
2.2 FASTENERS AND ELECTRODES
2.2.1 Steel bolts, nuts and washers
2.2.2 Rivets
2.2.3 Electrodes
2.2.4 High strength bolts
2.2.4.1 Storage
2.2.4.2 Bolt length
2.3 STEEL CASTINGS
2.4 CONCRETE
3 GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
3.1 LOADS
3.2 DESIGN METHODS
3.2.1 General
3.2.2 Simple design method
3.2.3 Fully rigid design method
3.2.4 Semi-rigid design method
3.2.5 Experimentally based design
3.3 OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
3.3.1 Loading combinations
3.3.2 Stability
3.3.3 Lateral forces
3.3.4 Lateral restraining systems
3.3.4.1 General
3.3.4.2 Forces
3.3.4.3 Stiffness
3.3.4.4 Multiple restraints
3.3.4.5 Parallel restrained members
3.3.4.6 Attachment of restraints
3.3.4.7 Critical flange or chord
3.3.5 Deflection
3.3.6 Fatigue
3.3.7 Corrosion protection
3.3.8 Brittle fracture
4 GEOMETRICAL PROPERTIES
4.1 GENERAL
4.2 GEOMETRICAL PROPERTIES FOR CALCULATING BENDING STRESSES
4.3 PLATE THICKNESSES
4.3.1 Plate and flange outstands
4.3.2 Flanges and plates—Unsupported widths
4.3.3 Circular hollow sections
4.4 HOLES
4.4.1 Effective diameters
4.4.2 Combinations of holes
4.5 SECTIONAL AREAS OF BOLTS, SCREWED TENSION RODS AND RIVETS
4.5.1 Bolts and screwed tension rods
4.5.2 Rivets
4.6 MAXIMUM SLENDERNESS RATIOS
5 DESIGN OF BEAMS
5.1 GENERAL
5.2 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE STRESS
5.3 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE COMPRESSIVE STRESS
5.4 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE STRESS IN A BEAM BENT ABOUT THE AXIS OF MAXIMUM STRENGTH
5.4.1 Equal-flange I-beams or channels
5.4.2 Laterally unsupported angle sections
5.4.3 Other sections
5.5 ELASTIC CRITICAL STRESS
5.6 BENDING STRESSES FOR CASED BEAMS
5.7 PURLINS AND GIRTS
5.8 EFFECTIVE SPAN OF BEAMS
5.9 EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF BEAMS FOR LATERAL BUCKLING
5.9.1 General
5.9.2 Restraints
5.9.2.1 Torsional end-restraints
5.9.2.2 Intermediate lateral restraints
5.9.3 Beams without intermediate lateral restraints
5.9.3.1 Restrained against torsion
5.9.3.2 Partially restrained against torsion
5.9.4 Cantilevered beams without intermediate lateral restraints
5.9.5 Beams with intermediate lateral restraint
5.9.5.1 Lateral restraint at intervals
5.9.5.2 Continuous lateral restraint
5.9.6 Beams with critical flange loading unrestrained laterally
5.10 SHEAR
5.10.1 Maximum shear stress
5.10.2 Average shear stress in rolled I-beams and channels, plate girders, box-sections, rectangular and circular hollow sections
5.10.3 Shear stresses in other sections
5.10.4 Effective sectional area
5.11 BEARING STRESSES
5.11.1 Maximum permissible stress
5.11.2 Dispersion of force through flange to web
5.12 FLANGE DETAILS
5.12.1 Flange splices
5.12.1.1 Butt welds
5.12.1.2 Cover plates
5.12.2 Curtailment of flange plates
5.12.3 Connection of flanges to web
5.13 WEB DETAILS
5.13.1 Web plates
5.13.1.1 Minimum thickness
5.13.1.2 Web panel—maximum dimension
5.13.1.3 Splices in webs
5.13.1.4 Side reinforcing plates
5.13.2 Load-bearing web stiffeners
5.13.2.1 All sections
5.13.2.2 Plate girders
5.13.2.3 Design for concentrated force
5.13.2.4 Design for torsional end-restraint
5.13.3 Intermediate web stiffeners for plate girders
5.13.3.1 Vertical stiffeners
5.13.3.2 Horizontal stiffeners
5.13.3.3 External forces on intermediate stiffeners
5.13.3.4 Connection of intermediate stiffeners to web
5.13.3.5 Outstand of all web stiffeners
5.14 SEPARATORS AND DIAPHRAGMS
6 DESIGN OF STRUTS
6.1 AXIAL STRESSES IN UNCASED STRUTS
6.1.1 Struts loaded concentrically
6.1.2 Built-up struts
6.1.3 Slender-leg struts
6.2 AXIAL FORCES IN CASED STRUTS
6.3 EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF STRUTS
6.3.1 General
6.3.2 Sidesway prevented
6.3.3 Sidesway not prevented
6.4 ECCENTRICITY FOR STRUTS
6.4.1 Location of beam reaction
6.4.2 Continuous struts
6.5 SPLICES
6.5.1 Ends of struts prepared for full contact
6.5.2 Ends of struts not prepared for full contact
6.5.3 Arrangement of splices
6.5.4 Minimum forces
6.6 STRUTS WITH TWO OR MORE MAIN COMPONENTS IN CONTACT
6.7 STRUTS WITH TWO SEPARATED COMPONENTS
6.7.1 Design forces for connections
6.7.2 Struts composed of two components back-to-back
6.7.3 Laced struts
6.7.4 Battened struts
6.7.5 Starred angles
6.8 CAPS AND BASES FOR STRUTS
6.8.1 Concentric forces
6.8.2 Eccentric forces and non-rectangular plates
6.8.3 Connection to bases
6.8.4 Encased grillage beams
6.9 BEARING STRESSES
7 DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
7.1 AXIAL STRESSES IN TENSION MEMBERS
7.2 TENSION MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO BENDING
7.3 DISTRIBUTION OF FORCES
7.3.1 End Connections providing uniform force distribution
7.3.2 End connections providing non-uniform force distribution
7.4 TENSION MEMBERS WITH TWO OR MORE MAIN COMPONENTS
7.4.1 General
7.4.2 Design forces for connections
7.4.3 Tension members composed of two components back-to-back
7.4.4 Lacing of tension members
7.4.5 Battening of tension members
7.5 CONNECTIONS
7.5.1 Minimum connections
7.5.2 Splices
7.5.3 Pin connections
7.6 BEARING STRESSES
8 COMBINED STRESSES
8.1 GENERAL
8.2 INDIVIDUAL MOMENTS AND FORCES
8.3 DIRECT STRESS COMBINATIONS
8.3.1 Axial compression and bending
8.3.2 Axial tension and bending
8.3.3 Biaxial bending
9 DESIGN OF CONNECTIONS
9.1 MINIMUM DESIGN FORCE ON CONNECTIONS
9.2 CHOICE OF FASTENERS
9.3 COMBINED CONNECTIONS
9.4 CONNECTION STIFFENERS
9.5 STRESSES IN BOLTS, SCREWED TENSION RODS, RIVETS AND PINS
9.5.1 Forces on bolts and rivets
9.5.2 Permissible stresses in bolts and rivets
9.5.2.1 General
9.5.2.2 Snug tight bolts and rivets
9.6 DESIGN DETAILS FOR FASTENERS
9.6.1 Minimum pitch
9.6.2 Minimum edge distances
9.6.2.1 General
9.6.2.2 Minimum edge distance in direction of component of force
9.6.3 Maximum pitch
9.6.4 Maximum edge distance
9.6.5 Locking of nuts
9.6.6 Long-grip rivets
9.7 DESIGN DETAILS FOR PINS
9.7.1 General
9.7.2 Bending stresses in pins
9.8 WELDS
9.8.1 General
9.8.2 Maximum permissible stresses in welds
9.8.3 Butt welds
9.8.3.1 Continuous incomplete-penetration butt welds
9.8.3.2 Intermittent complete-penetration butt welds
9.8.4 Fillet welds
9.8.4.1 Transverse spacing
9.8.4.2 Intermittent fillet welds—general
9.8.4.3 Intermittent fillet welds, built-up members
9.9 PACKING
9.9.1 Bolts or rivets through packing
9.9.2 Packing in welded construction
10 FABRICATION AND ERECTION
10.1 GENERAL
10.1.1 Inspection
10.1.2 Supply
10.1.3 Correction of faults
10.1.4 Identification
10.1.5 High strength structural bolts
10.2 TOLERANCES
10.2.1 General
10.2.2 Straightness
10.2.3 Length
10.2.4 Full contact splices
10.2.4.1 Machine ends
10.2.4.2 Grouted ends
10.2.4.3 Butt-welded ends
10.2.5 Struts not prepared for full contact
10.3 FABRICATION PROCEDURES
10.3.1 General
10.3.2 Cutting
10.3.3 Welding
10.3.3.1 General
10.3.3.2 Electrodes
10.3.4 Holes for bolts and rivets
10.3.4.1 Sizes
10.3.4.2 Alignment
10.3.4.3 Finishing
10.3.4.4 Punching
10.3.4.5 Flame cutting
10.3.5 Bolting
10.3.5.1 High-strength bolts
10.3.5.2 Other steel bolts
10.3.6 Riveting
10.3.7 Flattening ends of circular hollow sections
10.3.8 Pinned joints
10.3.9 Surface preparation
10.4 ERECTION
10.4.1 Equipment support
10.4.2 Setting out tolerances
10.4.2.1 Level and alignment of beams
10.4.2.2 Alignment and plumbing of struts
10.4.3 Safety during erection
10.4.4 Grouting at supports
10.4.4.1 Strut bases and beams
10.4.4.2 Bedding of grillages on concrete
10.4.4.3 Grouting
APPENDIX A
A1 NOTES ON DEFLECTION
A1.1 General
A1.2 Estimation
A1.3 Special conditions
A1.4 Conclusion
A2 DEFLECTION LIMITS FOR SPECIFIC CASES
A2.1 Beams
A2.2 Purlins, girts, secondary members
A2.3 Industrial buildings
APPENDIX B
B1 GENERAL
B2 LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
B3 LOADING CONDITIONS AND TYPE AND LOCATION OF MATERIAL
B4 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE STRESSES
B5 RIVETED AND BOLTED CONNECTIONS
B5.1 Connections made with bolts complying with AS 1252 and subject to tensile fatigue loading
B5.2 Other mechanical fasteners subject to tensile fatigue loading
B5.3 Rivets, bolts and threaded parts subjected to cyclic loading in shear
APPENDIX C
C1 GENERAL
APPENDIX D
APPENDIX E
E1 EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF STRUTS IN RECTANGULAR FRAMES
E1.1 General
E1.2 Sidesway prevented
E1.3 Sidesway not prevented
E1.4 Notation
E1.5 Application
E1.5.1 Assumptions
E1.5.2 Use of chart
E2 EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF STRUTS IN TRIANGULATED FRAMES
APPENDIX F
F1 GENERAL
F2 JOINTS SUBJECT TO AN APPLIED TENSILE FORCE ONLY IN THE DIRECTION OF THE BOLT AXIS
F3 FRICTION-TYPE JOINTS
F3.1 General
F3.2 Joints subject to shear force only
F3.3 Joints subject to shear and tensile forces
F3.4 Limitation of transmitted forces
F4 BEARING-TYPE JOINTS
F4.1 Limitations on bearing-type joints
F4.2 Joints subject to shear force only
F4.3 Joints subject to shear and tensile forces
F4.4 Limitation of transmitted forces
F5 PACKING
F5.1 Friction-type joints
F5.2 Bearing-type joints
F6 IDENTIFICATION
APPENDIX G
G1 FABRIC ATION
G1.1 Holes in members
G1.2 Preparation of surfaces in contact
G1.2.1 General
G1.2.2 Friction-type joints
G1.2.3 Bearing-type joints
G1.3 Identification
G2 ASSEMBLY
G2.1 Procedure
G2.1.1 Number of washers
G2.1.2 Tapered washers
G2.1.3 Placement of nuts
G2.1.4 Packing
G2.1.5 Alignment of parts
G2.1.6 Tightening pattern
G2.1.7 Retensioning
G2.2 Methods of tensioning
G3 INSPECTION
G3.1 General
G3.2 Tensioning procedures
G4 INSPECTION OF BOLT TENSION USING A TORQUE WRENCH
G5 STANDARD TEST FOR EVALUATION OF SLIP FACTOR
Cited references in this standard
[Superseded]
Hot-rolled structural steel bars and sections
[Current]
Hot-dip galvanized steel bolts and associated nuts and washers for tower construction
[Superseded]
Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) — Snow loads
[Superseded]
Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) — Wind loads
[Superseded]
Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) — Dead and live loads and load combinations
Content history
AS 3990-1993 Rec:2016
AS 3990 (INT)-1991
[Superseded]