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AS 3959:2018

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Construction of buildings in bushfire-prone areas

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AS 3959 2018 specifies requirements for the construction of buildings in bushfire-prone areas in order to improve their resistance to bushfire attack from burning embers, radiant heat, flame contact and combinations of the three attack forms. AS 3959 download is available.
Published: 14/11/2018
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Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
Header
About this publication
Preface
Foreword
1 Scope and general
1.1 Scope
1.2 Objective
1.2.1 Objective of this Standard
1.2.2 Objective of this edition
1.3 Application
1.4 Normative references
1.5 Definitions
1.6 Process of determining construction requirements
1.7 Bushfire Attack Levels (BALs)
2 Determining the Bushfire Attack Level (BAL)
2.1 General
2.2 Simplified procedure (Method 1)
2.2.1 General
2.2.2 Step 1—Relevant Fire Danger Index (FDI)
2.2.3 Step 2—Vegetation classification types
2.2.3.1 General
2.2.3.2 Exclusions—Low threat vegetation and non-vegetated areas
2.2.4 Step 3—Distance of the site from classified vegetation
2.2.5 Step 4—Effective slope of land under the classified vegetation
2.2.6 Step 5—Determination of Bushfire Attack Level (BAL)
2.2.7 Step 6—Determination of the appropriate construction requirements
3 General construction requirements
3.1 General
3.2 Construction requirements for specific structures
3.2.1 Attached structures and structures sharing a common roof space
3.2.2 Garages and carports beneath the subject building
3.2.3 Adjacent structures on the subject allotment
3.3 External mouldings
3.4 Higher levels of construction
3.5 Reduction in construction requirements due to shielding
3.6 Vents, weepholes, gaps and screening material
3.6.1 Vents, weepholes, joints and the like
3.6.2 Gaps to door and window openings
3.7 Bushfire shutters
3.8 Testing of material, elements of construction and systems to the AS 1530.8 series
3.9 Glazing
3.10 Sarking
3.11 Timber log walls
4 Bushfire Attack Level Low (BAL—Low)
5 Construction requirements for BAL—12.5
5.1 General
5.2 Sub-floor supports
5.3 Floors
5.3.1 General
5.3.2 Elevated floors
5.3.2.1 Enclosed subfloor space
5.3.2.2 Unenclosed subfloor space
5.4 Walls
5.4.1 General
5.4.2 Joints
5.4.3 Vents and weepholes
5.5 External glazed elements, assemblies and doors
5.5.1 Bushfire shutters
5.5.2 Screens for windows and doors
5.5.3 Windows and sidelights
5.5.4 Doors—Side-hung external doors (including French doors, panel fold and bi-fold doors)
5.5.5 Doors—Sliding doors
5.5.6 Doors—Vehicle access doors (garage doors)
5.6 Roofs (including penetrations, eaves, fascias and gables, and gutters and downpipes)
5.6.1 General
5.6.2 Tiled roofs
5.6.3 Sheet roofs
5.6.4 Veranda, carport and awning roof
5.6.5 Roof penetrations
5.6.6 Eaves linings, fascias and gables
5.6.7 Gutters and downpipes
5.7 Verandas, decks, steps and landings
5.7.1 General
5.7.2 Enclosed subfloor spaces of verandas, decks, steps, ramps and landings
5.7.2.1 Material to enclose a subfloor space
5.7.2.2 Supports
5.7.2.3 Framing
5.7.2.4 Decking, stair treads and the trafficable surfaces of ramps and landings
5.7.3 Unenclosed subfloor spaces of verandas, decks, steps, ramps and landings
5.7.3.1 Supports
5.7.3.2 Framing
5.7.3.3 Decking, stair treads and the trafficable surfaces of ramps and landings
5.7.4 Balustrades, handrails or other barriers
5.7.5 Veranda posts
5.8 Water and gas supply pipes
6 Construction requirements for BAL—19
6.1 General
6.2 Sub-floor supports
6.3 Floors
6.3.1 General
6.3.2 Elevated floors
6.3.2.1 Enclosed subfloor space
6.3.2.2 Unenclosed subfloor space
6.4 Walls
6.4.1 General
6.4.2 Joints
6.4.3 Vents and weepholes
6.5 External glazed elements, assemblies and doors
6.5.1 Bushfire shutters
6.5.2 Screens for windows and doors
6.5.3 Windows and sidelights
6.5.4 Doors—Side-hung external doors (including French doors, panel fold and bi-fold doors)
6.5.5 Doors—Sliding doors
6.5.6 Doors—Vehicle access doors (garage doors)
6.6 Roofs (including penetrations, eaves, fascias and gables, and gutters and downpipes)
6.6.1 General
6.6.2 Tiled roofs
6.6.3 Sheet roofs
6.6.4 Veranda, carport and awning roof
6.6.5 Roof penetrations
6.6.6 Eaves linings, fascias and gables
6.6.7 Gutters and downpipes
6.7 Verandas, decks, steps and landings
6.7.1 General
6.7.2 Enclosed subfloor spaces of verandas, decks, steps, ramps and landings
6.7.2.1 Material to enclose a subfloor space
6.7.2.2 Supports
6.7.2.3 Framing
6.7.2.4 Decking, stair treads and the trafficable surfaces of ramps and landings
6.7.3 Unenclosed subfloor spaces of verandas, decks, steps, ramps and landings
6.7.3.1 Supports
6.7.3.2 Framing
6.7.3.3 Decking, stair treads and the trafficable surfaces of ramps and landings
6.7.4 Balustrades, handrails or other barriers
6.7.5 Veranda posts
6.8 Water and gas supply pipes
7 Construction requirements for BAL—29
7.1 General
7.2 Sub-floor supports
7.3 Floors
7.3.1 General
7.3.2 Elevated floors
7.3.2.1 Enclosed subfloor space
7.3.2.2 Unenclosed subfloor space
7.4 Walls
7.4.1 General
7.4.2 Joints
7.4.3 Vents and weepholes
7.5 External glazed elements, assemblies and doors
7.5.1 Bushfire shutters
7.5.2 Screens for windows and doors
7.5.3 Windows and sidelights
7.5.4 Doors—Side-hung external doors (including French doors, panel fold and bi-fold doors)
7.5.5 Doors—Sliding doors
7.5.6 Doors—Vehicle access doors (garage doors)
7.6 Roofs (including penetrations, eaves, fascias and gables, and gutters and downpipes)
7.6.1 General
7.6.2 Tiled roofs
7.6.3 Sheet roofs
7.6.4 Veranda, carport and awning roof
7.6.5 Roof penetrations
7.6.6 Eaves linings, fascias and gables
7.6.7 Gutters and downpipes
7.7 Verandas, decks, steps and landings
7.7.1 General
7.7.2 Enclosed subfloor spaces of verandas, decks, steps, ramps and landings
7.7.2.1 Material to enclose a subfloor space
7.7.2.2 Supports
7.7.2.3 Framing
7.7.2.4 Decking, stair treads and the trafficable surfaces of ramps and landings
7.7.3 Unenclosed subfloor spaces of verandas, decks, steps, ramps and landings
7.7.3.1 Supports
7.7.3.2 Framing
7.7.3.3 Decking, stair treads and the trafficable surfaces of ramps and landings
7.7.4 Balustrades, handrails or other barriers
7.7.5 Veranda posts
7.8 Water and gas supply pipes
8 Construction requirements for BAL—40
8.1 General
8.2 Sub-floor supports
8.3 Floors
8.3.1 General
8.3.2 Elevated floors
8.3.2.1 Enclosed subfloor space
8.3.2.2 Unenclosed subfloor space
8.4 Walls
8.4.1 General
8.4.2 Joints
8.4.3 Vents and weepholes
8.5 External glazed elements, assemblies and doors
8.5.1 Bushfire shutters
8.5.2 Screens for windows and doors
8.5.3 Windows and sidelights
8.5.4 Doors—Side-hung external doors (including French doors, panel fold and bi-fold doors)
8.5.5 Doors—Sliding doors
8.5.6 Doors—Vehicle access doors (garage doors)
8.6 Roofs (including penetrations, eaves, fascias and gables, and gutters and downpipes)
8.6.1 General
8.6.2 Tiled roofs
8.6.3 Sheet roofs
8.6.4 Veranda, carport and awning roof
8.6.5 Roof penetrations
8.6.6 Eaves linings, fascias and gables
8.6.7 Gutters and downpipes
8.7 Verandas, decks, steps and landings
8.7.1 General
8.7.2 Enclosed subfloor spaces of verandas, decks, steps, ramps and landings
8.7.2.1 Material to enclose a subfloor space
8.7.2.2 Supports
8.7.2.3 Framing
8.7.2.4 Decking, stair treads and the trafficable surfaces of ramps and landings
8.7.3 Unenclosed subfloor spaces of verandas, decks, steps, ramps and landings
8.7.3.1 Supports
8.7.3.2 Framing
8.7.3.3 Decking, stair treads and the trafficable surfaces of ramps and landings
8.7.4 Balustrades, handrails or other barriers
8.7.5 Veranda posts
8.8 Water and gas supply pipes
9 Construction requirements for BAL—FZ
9.1 General
9.2 Sub-floor supports
9.3 Floors
9.3.1 General
9.3.2 Elevated floors
9.3.2.1 Enclosed subfloor space
9.3.2.2 Unenclosed subfloor space
9.4 Walls
9.4.1 General
9.4.2 Joints
9.4.3 Vents and weepholes
9.5 External glazed elements, assemblies and doors
9.5.1 Bushfire shutters
9.5.2 Screens for windows and doors
9.5.3 Windows and sidelights
9.5.4 Doors—Side-hung external doors (including French doors, panel fold and bi-fold doors)
9.5.5 Doors—Sliding doors
9.5.6 Doors—Vehicle access doors (garage doors)
9.6 Roofs (including penetrations, eaves, fascias and gables, and gutters and downpipes)
9.6.1 General
9.6.2 Tiled roofs
9.6.3 Sheet roofs
9.6.4 Veranda, carport and awning roof
9.6.5 Roof penetrations
9.6.6 Eaves linings, fascias and gables
9.6.7 Gutters and downpipes
9.7 Verandas, decks, steps and landings
9.7.1 General
9.7.2 Enclosed subfloor spaces of verandas, decks, steps, ramps and landings
9.7.2.1 Material to enclose a subfloor space
9.7.2.2 Supports
9.7.2.3 Framing
9.7.2.4 Decking, stair treads and the trafficable surfaces of ramps and landings
9.7.3 Unenclosed subfloor spaces of verandas, decks, steps, ramps and landings
9.7.3.1 Supports
9.7.3.2 Framing
9.7.3.3 Decking, stair treads and the trafficable surfaces of ramps and landings
9.7.4 Balustrades, handrails or other barriers
9.7.5 Veranda posts
9.8 Water and gas supply pipes
Appendix A
A1 General
A2 Worked example
Appendix B
B1 General
B2 Step 1—Relevant FDI or wind speed
B3 Step 2—Vegetation classification
B4 Step 3—Effective slope under the classified vegetation
B5 Step 4—Slope between site and classified vegetation
B6 Step 5—Distance of the site from classified vegetation
B7 Step 6—Flame length
B8 Step 7—Flame width
B9 Step 8—Elevation of receiver
B10 Step 9—Radiant heat flux
B10.1 General
B10.2 Flame emissive power
B10.3 View factor
B10.4 Atmospheric transmissivity
B11 Step 10—Determine the Bushfire Attack Level
Appendix C
Appendix D
Appendix E
E1 General construction
E2 Windows and doors
Appendix F
F1 General
F2 Testing
F3 Accelerated weathering
F4 Bushfire-resisting species
Appendix G
G1 General
G2 Radiant heat thresholds of pain and ignition
G3 Bushfire Attack Levels (BALs) explained
Appendix H
H1 Scope
H2 Tiled roofs
H3 Sheet roofs
Amendment control sheet
Bibliography
Cited references in this standard
Content history
[Available Superseded]
DR AS 3959:2018