AS 3958.1-2007


Ceramic tiles, Part 1: Guide to the installation of ceramic tiles

Included in Waterproofing and tiling set
Provides guidance on the preparation of the background and the fixing and grouting of floor and wall tiles and mosaic tiles. Information for application in swimming pools, gradients on floors, screeds and rendering, and cleaning and maintenance is also included.
Published: 07/03/2007
Pages: 106
Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
About this publication
1 Scope and general
1.1 Scope
1.2 Referenced documents
1.3 Definitions
1.4 Synonyms
2 Materials
2.1 Scope of section
2.2 Ceramic and mosaic tiles
2.2.1 General
2.2.2 Mosaic tiles
2.3 Primers
2.4 Adhesives
2.5 Grouting materials
2.5.1 General
2.5.2 Cementitious grout
2.5.3 Proprietary cementitious grout
2.5.4 Proprietary reaction resin grouts
2.6 Background materials
2.6.1 Plywood
2.6.2 Structural particleboard flooring
2.6.3 Fibre-cement sheet
2.6.4 Compressed fibre-cement sheets
2.6.5 Gypsum plasterboard sheets
2.6.6 Furring and studs
2.7 Movement joint materials
2.7.1 General
2.7.2 Prefabricated movement joints
2.7.3 Back-up materials
2.7.4 Pre-formed strips
2.7.5 Sealants
2.8 Bonding agents
2.9 Cement, sand and lime
2.9.1 Cement
2.9.2 Sand
2.9.3 Lime
2.10 Separating layer for floors
2.11 Underlays
2.12 Reinforcement
2.13 Storage
2.13.1 Tiles
2.13.2 Cement
2.13.3 Lime
2.13.4 Sand
2.13.5 Adhesives and jointing materials
2.13.6 Temperature extremes
2.14 Mixing of materials
2.14.1 General
2.14.2 Mixing by mechanical means
2.14.3 Mixing by hand
3 Tiling systems
3.1 Scope of section
3.2 Floor tiling installation guide
3.3 Floors
3.3.1 Exterior floors — General applications Cement mortar — Bonded Cement-based adhesive or modified mortar
3.3.2 Exterior floors, decks and roofs Cement-based adhesive with bonded waterproof membrane Compressed fibre-cement decks on timber joists Cement mortar on drained waterproof membrane
3.3.3 Interior floors — Concrete subfloors Cement mortar — Bonded Cement-based adhesive, modified mortar or organic adhesive Cement mortar — Separating layer Cement-based adhesive or organic adhesive — Liquid applied underlay
3.3.4 Interior floors — Framed substrates Timber substrates overlaid with fibre-cement sheet Compressed fibre-cement substrates on timber joists Timber substrates tiled with organic adhesive Timber substrates with cement mortar separating layer Timber subfloors tiled with underlay compound and adhesive
3.4 Wall tiling installation guide
3.5 Walls
3.5.1 Exterior walls — Masonry, concrete or framed construction Masonry with cement-based adhesive or modified mortar Masonry with mortar over a separating layer Compressed fibre-cement sheet on framed construction or on furring over masonry with organic adhesive
3.5.2 Dry interior walls — Masonry or concrete Cement-based adhesive or modified mortar Mechanically fixed gypsum plasterboard backing with organic adhesive
3.5.3 Dry interior walls — Framed construction Fibre-cement sheet with organic adhesive Gypsum plasterboard with organic adhesive
3.5.4 Wet area interior walls — Masonry or concrete Cement-based adhesives or modified mortar Fibre-cement sheet on furring over masonry with organic adhesive Gypsum plasterboard on furring over masonry or concrete with organic adhesive
3.5.5 Wet-area interior walls — Framed construction Fibre-cement sheet with organic adhesive Gypsum plasterboard with organic adhesive
4 Preparation of backgrounds for tiling
4.1 Scope of section
4.2 General
4.2.1 Wet areas
4.2.2 Screeds
4.2.3 Separating layer
4.2.4 Liquid and flexible in situ underlays
4.2.5 Rigid underlays
4.3 Concrete floors
4.3.1 General
4.3.2 New concrete floors
4.3.3 Existing concrete floors
4.3.4 Concrete floors with existing finish
4.4 Framed floors
4.4.1 General
4.4.2 Ventilation of subfloor spaces Joist-supported ground floors Joist-supported upper floors
4.4.3 Construction of joist-supported floors Bearers and joists Trimmers
4.4.4 Preparation for tiling over timber floors General Timber tongued and grooved flooring Plywood Structural particleboard flooring Fibre-cement sheets
4.4.5 Preparation for tiling on compressed fibre-cement sheets
4.5 Concrete/masonry walls
4.5.1 General
4.5.2 New concrete walls
4.5.3 Existing concrete/masonry walls General Procedures
4.6 Framed walls
4.6.1 General
4.6.2 Fixing of plywood substrates
4.6.3 Fixing of fibre-cement sheets
4.6.4 Fixing of compressed fibre-cement sheets
4.6.5 Fixing of gypsum-plasterboard sheets
5 Installation of ceramic tiles
5.1 Scope of section
5.2 Preliminary considerations
5.2.1 General
5.2.2 Compatibility of backgrounds and bedding systems General Residual moisture content
5.2.3 Delivery, storage and handling of materials at the project site
5.2.4 Site protection
5.3 Materials
5.4 General criteria for installation of tiles
5.4.1 General
5.4.2 Setting out General Floor tiles Wall tiles Placement of cuts
5.4.3 Fitting
5.4.4 Lighting
5.4.5 Movement joints General Floors Walls Floor/wall joints Sealants Backup materials Preformed strips
5.4.6 Tile finish and joints
5.4.7 Bonding
5.4.8 Grouting
5.5 Installation of ceramic tiles with cement mortar
5.5.1 General
5.5.2 Backgrounds
5.5.3 Preparation of tile
5.5.4 Mortar mixes
5.5.5 Fixing to floors Bedding in sand/cement mortar bed Bedding in mortar over a separating layer Bedding in mortar over an in situ flexible underlay Bedding in mortar over structural particleboard flooring
5.5.6 Fixing to walls General Buttering method Render and lay method
5.6 Installation of ceramic tiles with adhesive
5.6.1 General
5.6.2 Thin-bed fixing
5.6.3 Thick-bed
5.6.4 Adhesive coverage and distribution General Coverage Distribution Depth Good tiling practice
5.6.5 Cement-based adhesives Background Preparation of tiles Mixing cement-based adhesive Fixing to floors — Thin-bed and thick-bed Fixing to walls and ceilings
5.6.6 Water-resistant organic adhesives General Backgrounds Preparation of the tiles Mixing of the adhesive
5.6.7 Other adhesives
5.7 Grouting
5.7.1 General
5.7.2 Mosaic tiles
5.7.3 Curing
5.8 Cleaning tiles
Appendix A
A.1 Methods of screed construction
A.2 Cement and sand or fine concrete screeds
A.2.1 General
A.2.2 Bonding
A.2.3 Thickness
A.2.4 Framed construction
A.2.5 Pipes and trunking
A.3 Bay sizes
A.4 Use of bonding agents
A.5 Soundness of bonded and unbonded screeds
A.6 Tolerances on level and surface finish of screeds and concrete bases
A.6.1 General
A.6.2 Surface finish
A.6.3 Departure from datum
A.7 Susceptibility to cracking of screeds
A.8 Eliminating construction moisture
A.9 Admixtures
Appendix B
B.1 General
B.2 Background preparation
B.2.1 General
B.2.2 Dense, strong and smooth materials
B.2.3 Moderately strong and porous materials
B.2.4 Moderately weak and porous materials
B.2.5 No-fines concrete
B.2.6 Lathing and netting
B.2.7 Other backgrounds
B.3 Application of render
B.3.1 General
B.3.2 Rendering using anchored reinforcement
B.3.3 Relationship between component materials
B.4 Rendering mixes
B.4.1 General
B.4.2 Dense, strong and smooth or moderately strong and porous backgrounds
B.4.3 Moderately weak and porous backgrounds
B.4.4 Mixed backgrounds
B.4.5 Backgrounds subject to dampness
B.5 Thickness and trueness of rendering
Appendix C
C.1 General
C.2 Routine maintenance
C.2.1 General
C.2.2 Efflorescence
C.2.3 Residual cement film
C.2.4 Other residual films
C.2.5 Surface sealing materials
Appendix D
D.1 General
D.2 Factors affecting falls
D.3 Fall ratios
D.4 Diagonal cutting of tiles
Appendix E
E.1 Wet conditions (continuously immersed)
E.1.1 General
E.2 Internal swimming pools of concrete construction (excluding saltwater pools)
E.2.1 General
E.2.2 Pool surrounds
E.2.3 Walls (rendering)
E.2.4 Floors (screeds)
E.2.5 Waterproofing with liquid applied membranes
E.2.6 Fixing tiles to the pool shell (floor and walls)
E.2.7 Fixing floor tiles to the pool surround and adjacent areas
E.2.8 Penetrations
E.2.9 Grouting in swimming pools
E.2.10 Movement joints
E.2.11 Pool water conditions
E.2.12 Filling and emptying
E.2.13 Heating
E.3 Saltwater pools, ranks and reservoirs of concrete construction
E.3.1 General
E.3.2 Screed, rendering, bedding and jointing
E.4 Concrete tanks and service reservoirs
Amendment control sheet
AS 3958.1-2007
Amendment No. 1 (2010)
Cited references in this standard
Limes and limestones, Part 1: Limes for building
Residential timber-framed construction, Part 2: Non-cyclonic areas
Residential timber-framed construction, Part 3: Cyclonic areas
Residential timber-framed constructions, Part 4: Simplified — Non-cyclonic areas
Aggregates and rock for engineering purposes, Part 1: Concrete aggregates
Content history
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