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AS 1684.2-2010

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Residential timber-framed construction, Part 2: Non-cyclonic areas

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AS 1684.2 2010 specifies requirements for the building industry with procedures that can be used to determine building practice, to design or check construction details, and to determine member sizes, and bracing and fixing requirements for timber-framed construction in non-cyclonic areas.
Published: 21/06/2010
Pages: 268
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Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
Header
About this publication
Preface
1 Scope and general
1.1 Scope and application
1.1.1 Scope
1.1.2 Application
1.2 Companion documents
1.3 Normative references
1.4 Limitations
1.4.1 General
1.4.2 Wind classification
1.4.3 Plan
1.4.4 Number of storeys of timber framing
1.4.5 Width
1.4.6 Wall height
1.4.7 Roof pitch
1.4.8 Spacing of bracing
1.4.9 Roof types
1.4.10 Building masses
1.5 Design criteria
1.6 Forces on buildings
1.7 Load paths—Offsets and cantilevers
1.8 Durability
1.9 Dimensions
1.10 Bearing
1.11 Stress grades
1.12 Engineered timber products and engineered wood products (EWPs)
1.13 Size tolerances
1.14 Alternative timber dimensions
1.15 Steel grade and corrosion protection
1.16 Considerations for design using this standard
1.17 Interpolation
2 Terminology and definitions
2.1 General
2.2 Terminology of framing members
2.3 Vertical lamination
2.3.1 Vertical nail lamination
2.3.2 Lamination of spaced ring beams
2.4 Stud lamination
2.5 Horizontal nail lamination—Wall plates only
2.6 Load width and area supported
2.6.1 General
2.6.2 Floor load width (FLW)
2.6.3 Ceiling load width (CLW)
2.6.4 Roof load width (RLW)
2.6.5 Area supported
2.7 Definitions—General
2.7.1 Loadbearing wall
2.7.2 Non-loadbearing walls
2.7.2.1 Non-loadbearing wall, external
2.7.2.2 Non-loadbearing wall, internal
2.7.3 Regulatory authority
2.7.4 Roof
2.7.4.1 Coupled roof
2.7.4.2 Non-coupled roof
2.7.4.3 Pitched roof
2.7.4.4 Trussed roof
2.7.5 Span and spacing
2.7.5.1 General
2.7.5.2 Spacing
2.7.5.3 Span
2.7.5.4 Single span
2.7.5.5 Continuous span
2.7.6 Stress grade
2.7.7 Stud height
2.7.8 Two-storey
2.7.9 Rim board
3 Substructure
3.1 General
3.2 Site preparation and drainage
3.2.1 General
3.2.2 Site clearing
3.2.3 Site drainage
3.3 Ground clearance and subfloor ventilation
3.4 Durability
3.4.1 Termite management
3.4.2 Species selection
3.5 Substructure bracing
3.6 Subfloor supports
3.6.1 General
3.6.2 Soil classification
3.6.3 Procedure
3.6.4 Determination of vertical gravity loads
3.6.4.1 General
3.6.4.2 Permanent (dead) loads (G)
3.6.4.3 Live loads (Q)
3.6.5 Determination of total vertical gravity load combination for footings
3.6.6 Footing size or bearing area
3.7 Footings and supports for wind classifications N1 and N2
3.7.1 General
3.7.2 Simplified footing classification
3.7.3 Stumps and posts
3.7.4 Footing type support limitations (load widths × bearer spans)
4 Floor framing
4.1 General
4.1.1 Application
4.1.2 Materials
4.1.3 Framing configurations
4.1.4 Weatherproofing
4.1.5 Shrinkage
4.1.6 Cuts, holes and notches in bearers and joists
4.2 Building practice
4.2.1 Bearers
4.2.1.1 General
4.2.1.2 Fixing of bearers to supports
4.2.1.3 Built-up bearers
4.2.1.4 Double bearers (spaced bearers)
4.2.2 Joists
4.2.2.1 General
4.2.2.2 Location of joists
4.2.2.3 Deep joists
4.2.2.4 Fixing of joists to bearers or lower wall plates
4.3 Member sizes
4.3.1 Bearers
4.3.1.1 Bearers supporting loadbearing walls
4.3.1.2 Bearers supporting floor loads only
4.3.1.3 Bearers in lower storey supporting upper-storey floor loads
4.3.1.4 Bearers supporting gable or skillion end walls
4.3.1.5 Single or upper storey bearers supporting loadbearing walls at right angles to their span
4.3.1.6 Bearers supporting roof point loads
4.3.1.7 Bearers supporting decks more than 1.0 m off the ground
4.3.2 Floor joists
4.3.2.1 General
4.3.2.2 Floor joists supporting non-loadbearing gable or skillion end walls
4.3.2.3 Floor joists supporting loadbearing walls at right angles to joists
4.3.2.4 Single- or upper-storey floor joists supporting roof point loads and loadbearing walls parallel to joists
4.3.2.5 Openings in floors
4.3.2.6 Joists supporting decks more than 1.0 m off the ground
5 Flooring and decking
5.1 General
5.2 Platform floors
5.3 Fitted floors (cut-in floors)
5.4 Expansion joints
5.5 Laying and fixing
5.5.1 Strip flooring—Laying
5.5.2 Cramping
5.5.2.1 General
5.5.2.2 Fixing
5.5.2.3 Fixing to structural plywood underlay
5.5.3 Structural plywood flooring
5.5.3.1 Laying
5.5.3.2 Fixing (see Figure 5.5)
5.5.4 Particleboard
5.5.4.1 General
5.5.4.2 Laying
5.5.4.3 Fixing
5.6 Wet area floors
5.7 Joist spacing—Flooring
5.8 Decking
6 Wall framing
6.1 General
6.1.1 Application
6.1.2 Wall frame members
6.1.3 Bracing
6.2 Building practice
6.2.1 Studs
6.2.1.1 Straightening of studs (crippling)
6.2.1.2 Common studs
6.2.1.3 Wall junctions
6.2.1.4 Notching, trenching and holes in studs and plates
6.2.1.5 Nogging
6.2.2 Plates
6.2.2.1 General
6.2.2.2 Bottom plates
6.2.2.3 Stiffening of top plates
6.2.2.4 Joints in top plates and ring beams
6.2.3 Openings
6.2.4 Framing around chimneys and flues
6.2.5 Lateral support for non-loadbearing walls
6.2.5.1 External walls
6.2.5.2 Internal walls—Trussed roofs
6.3 Member sizes
6.3.1 General
6.3.2 Wall studs
6.3.2.1 Common studs
6.3.2.2 Studs supporting concentrated loads
6.3.2.3 Jamb studs (studs at sides of openings)
6.3.2.4 Internal loadbearing wall studs
6.3.2.5 Gable or skillion end and non-loadbearing external wall studs
6.3.2.6 Mullions
6.3.2.7 Concentrated loads on non-loadbearing internal walls
6.3.3 Bottom plates
6.3.4 Top plates
6.3.5 Studs, plates and noggings in non-loadbearing internal walls
6.3.6 Lintels and ring beams
6.3.6.1 General
6.3.6.2 Lintels and ring beams in loadbearing walls
6.3.6.3 Lintels or ring beams in gable end walls not required to transfer tie-down
6.3.6.4 Lintels or ring beams supporting concentrated roof loads
6.3.6.5 Lintels in non-loadbearing walls
6.3.6.6 Windowsill trimmers
6.3.7 Verandah beams (plates)
6.3.8 Posts supporting roof and/or floor loads
7 Roof framing
7.1 General
7.1.1 Application
7.1.2 Types of roofs and limitations
7.1.2.1 General
7.1.2.2 Coupled roof
7.1.2.3 Non-coupled roof
7.1.2.4 Trussed roof
7.2 Building practice
7.2.1 Ceilings
7.2.2 Construction loads on ceiling framing
7.2.3 Ceiling battens
7.2.4 Ceiling joists
7.2.4.1 General
7.2.4.2 Splices and joints in coupled roof
7.2.4.3 Connection to hanging beams
7.2.4.4 Trimming around openings
7.2.4.5 Platforms in roof spaces
7.2.5 Hanging beams
7.2.5.1 General
7.2.5.2 End support of hanging beams
7.2.6 Counter beams
7.2.6.1 General
7.2.6.2 Intersection of hanging and counter beams
7.2.7 Combined strutting/hanging beams
7.2.8 Combined strutting/counter beams
7.2.9 Strutting beams
7.2.10 Underpurlins
7.2.10.1 General
7.2.10.2 Joints in underpurlins
7.2.10.3 Cantilevered underpurlins
7.2.10.4 Support of underpurlins
7.2.11 Rafters
7.2.11.1 General
7.2.11.2 Birdsmouthing
7.2.12 Ridgeboards
7.2.12.1 General
7.2.12.2 Joints in ridgeboards
7.2.13 Hip and valley rafters
7.2.14 Scotch valleys
7.2.15 Roof strutting
7.2.15.1 Roof struts
7.2.15.2 Tied and braced strut system
7.2.15.3 Fan struts
7.2.15.4 Opposing struts
7.2.16 Collar ties
7.2.17 Hip ends
7.2.18 Alternative support systems
7.2.19 Non-coupled roofs
7.2.19.1 General
7.2.19.2 Ridge and intermediate beams
7.2.20 Roof battens
7.2.21 Trussed roofs
7.2.21.1 General
7.2.21.2 Structural fascias
7.2.21.3 Truss layout
7.2.21.4 Support of trusses
7.2.22 Bracing for raftered and trussed roofs
7.2.23 Fixing of ceiling framing to internal bracing walls
7.2.24 Eaves construction
7.2.24.1 General
7.2.24.2 Boxed eaves
7.2.25 Gable or verge construction
7.2.25.1 General
7.2.25.2 Open gables
7.2.25.3 Boxed gables
7.2.26 Lateral restraint of hanging, strutting, strutting/hanging beams, and similar members
7.2.27 Framing around chimneys and flues
7.3 Member sizes
7.3.1 General
7.3.2 Ceiling battens
7.3.3 Ceiling lining and non-trafficable roof decking
7.3.3.1 General
7.3.3.2 Tongued and grooved non-trafficable roof decking
7.3.3.3 Structural plywood for non-trafficable roof decking
7.3.4 Loads on ceilings
7.3.5 Binders
7.3.6 Ceiling joists
7.3.7 Hanging beams
7.3.8 Counter beams
7.3.9 Combined strutting/hanging beams
7.3.10 Combined counter/strutting beams
7.3.11 Strutting beams
7.3.12 Underpurlins
7.3.13 Rafters and purlins
7.3.13.1 General
7.3.13.2 Rafter overhangs
7.3.13.3 Birdsmouthed and non-birdsmouthed rafters
7.3.13.4 Dressed rafters
7.3.14 Ridge or intermediate beams—Cathedral, skillion, or similar roofs
7.3.15 Roof battens
7.3.16 Cantilevered gable ends
7.3.17 Other members or components
8 Racking and shear forces (bracing)
8.1 General
8.2 Temporary bracing
8.3 Wall and subfloor bracing
8.3.1 General
8.3.2 Wind pressure on the building
8.3.3 Area of elevation
8.3.4 Racking force
8.3.5 Subfloor bracing
8.3.5.1 General
8.3.5.2 Braced and cantilevered timber or concrete stumps
8.3.5.3 Soil classification reduction factor
8.3.5.4 Braced timber stumps
8.3.5.5 Timber braces on concrete, masonry or timber columns
8.3.5.6 Cantilevered stumps in concrete or soil backfill
8.3.5.7 Bracing columns
8.3.5.8 Unreinforced masonry bracing
8.3.5.9 Spacing of bracing in the lower storey of two-storey construction or the subfloor of single- or two-storey construction
8.3.6 Wall bracing
8.3.6.1 General
8.3.6.2 Nominal wall bracing
8.3.6.3 Structural wall bracing
8.3.6.4 Wall capacity and height modification
8.3.6.5 Length and capacity for plywood bracing walls
8.3.6.6 Location and distribution of bracing
8.3.6.7 Spacing of bracing walls in single storey or upper storey of two-storey construction
8.3.6.8 External bracing walls under the ends of eaves
8.3.6.9 Fixing of top of bracing walls
8.3.6.10 Fixing of bottom of bracing walls
8.3.7 Roof bracing
8.3.7.1 Pitched roofs (coupled and non-coupled roofs)
8.3.7.2 Gable roofs (including cathedral roofs) for wind classifications up to N2
8.3.7.3 Trussed roofs
9 Fixings and tie-down design
9.1 General
9.2 General connection requirements
9.2.1 General
9.2.2 Straps, bolts, screws, coach screws and framing anchors
9.2.3 Steel washers
9.2.4 Drilling for bolts
9.2.5 Drilling for coach screws
9.2.6 Screw and coach screw penetration
9.2.7 Framing anchor and strap nails
9.2.8 Joining of top plates and ring beam
9.2.9 Tie-down of members joined over supports
9.3 Procedure flow chart
9.4 Nominal and specific fixing requirements
9.5 Nominal fixings (minimum fixings)
9.6 Specific tie-down fixings
9.6.1 General
9.6.2 Uplift load width (ULW)
9.6.3 Application
9.6.4 Wind uplift forces
9.6.5 Joint group
9.7 Shear forces
9.7.1 General
9.7.2 Bottom plate to concrete slab
9.7.3 Floor joists to bearers/walls
9.7.4 Bearers to supports
9.7.5 Shear forces on joists and bearers
9.7.6 Shear forces on external non-loadbearing walls
Appendix A
A1 Mass of roof materials
A2 Examples
Appendix B
B1 Durability
B2 Natural durability
B3 Hazard level
B4 Preservative treatment
B5 Weathering
B6 Service life
B7 Specific durability design
Appendix C
C1 Interpolation
C2 Example
Appendix D
D1 Foundation bearing area
D2 Even distribution of bracing
D3 Shear force
D3.1 Example 1
D3.2 Example 2—Bearers to stumps
Appendix E
E1 Moisture content
E2 Dimensional stability
E3 Allowance for shrinkage
Appendix F
Appendix G
G1 General
G2 Notes to the table
G2.1 Column 1—Standard trade name
G2.2 Column 2—Botanical name
G2.3 Column 3—Strength group
G2.4 Column 4—Joint group
G2.5 Column 5—Density
G2.6 Column 6—Hardness
G2.7 Column 7—Toughness
G2.8 Column 8—Tangential shrinkage
G2.9 Column 9—Unit tangential movement (%)
G2.10 Column 10—Natural durability class of heartwood
G2.11 Column 11—Lyctid susceptibility of sapwood
G2.12 Column 12—Termite-resistance of heartwood
G2.13 Column 13—Early fire hazard indices
G2.14 Column 14—Colour
G2.15 Column 15—Common uses
G2.16 Column 16—Availability
Appendix H
Appendix I
Appendix J
J1 General
J2 Vertical nail lamination
J3 Floor framing
J3.1 Cuts, holes and notches in bearers and joists
J3.2 Bearers
J3.3 Joists
J3.3.1 Solid section
J3.3.2 I-joists
J3.4 Notching and cutting over bearing points
J3.5 Bearing points for concentrated loads
J3.6 Deep joists—Lateral restraint
J3.6.1 Blocking and rim boards
J3.6.2 Nailplate connectors
J3.6.3 Intermediate blockings
J4 Roof framing
J4.1 Roof bracing
J4.2 Rafters
J4.3 Ceiling joists
J5 Bracing details and shear forces
J5.1 Bracing details for I-joists and internal walls
J6 Fixings and tie-down design
AS 1684.2—2010
Bibliography
Cited references in this standard
[Current]
Structural design actions, Part 2: Wind actions
[Current]
Installation of nailplated timber roof trusses
[Current]
Timber — Softwood — Sawn and milled products, Part 1: Product specification
[Current]
Timber — Natural durability ratings
[Current]
Structural design actions, Part 1: Permanent, imposed and other actions
Content history
[Available Superseded]
[Available Superseded]