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AS 1597.2-1996

[Available Superseded]

Precast reinforced concrete box culverts, Part 2: Large culverts (from 1500 mm span and up to and including 4200 mm span and 4200 mm height)

Specifies requirements for the design, testing, manufacture and installation of precast reinforced concrete rectangular box culverts, for conveying water not under pressure and for carrying roadway and railway loadings.
Published: 05/04/1996
Pages: 82
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Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
Header
About this publication
PREFACE
1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE
1.2 APPLICATION
1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
1.4 DEFINITIONS
1.5 NOTATION
1.6 USE OF ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS OR METHODS
1.6.1 General
1.6.2 Existing structures
1.7 TYPES OF CULVERTS
1.8 CLASSIFICATION
1.8.1 General
1.8.2 Size Class
1.8.3 Load Class
1.8.3.1 General
1.8.3.2 Load Class for roadway
1.8.3.3 Load Class for railway
2 MATERIALS, MANUFACTURE AND DIMENSIONING
2.1 SCOPE
2.2 FORMWORK
2.3 REINFORCEMENT
2.3.1 General
2.3.2 Welding
2.4 CONCRETE MATERIALS
2.4.1 Cement
2.4.2 Supplementary cementitious materials
2.4.3 Aggregates
2.4.4 Water
2.4.5 Admixtures
2.4.6 Restriction on chemical content
2.5 SPECIFICATION AND MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE
2.5.1 Strength grade
2.5.2 Manufacture
2.6 HANDLING, PLACING AND FINISHING OF CONCRETE
2.7 CURING
2.7.1 General
2.7.2 Moist curing
2.7.3 Membrane curing
2.7.4 Accelerated curing
2.8 JOINTS
2.9 DIMENSIONS
2.9.1 Internal dimensions
2.9.2 Length
2.10 COVER TO REINFORCEMENT
2.11 MEASUREMENT OF DIMENSIONS
2.11.1 General
2.11.2 Size dimensions
2.11.3 Thickness
2.11.4 Cover
2.11.5 Length
2.12 TOLERANCES
2.12.1 General
2.12.2 Dimension tolerances
2.12.2.1 Size dimensions
2.12.2.2 Thickness
2.12.2.3 Cover
2.12.2.4 Length
2.12.3 Basic shape tolerances
2.12.3.1 Ends
2.12.3.2 Verticality
2.12.3.3 Squareness
2.13 PROVISION FOR LIFTING
2.14 WORKMANSHIP AND FINISH
2.15 DEFECTS
2.15.1 General
2.15.2 Types
2.15.3 Acceptability
2.16 MARKING
2.17 FINISHING AND REPAIRS
3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES
3.1 GENERAL
3.1.1 Scope
3.1.2 General design requirements
3.2 DESIGN LOADS
3.2.1 Dead loads
3.2.1.1 General
3.2.1.2 Vertical earth pressure
3.2.1.3 Horizontal earth pressure due to compacted fill
3.2.2 Traffic loads for culverts under roadways
3.2.2.1 General
3.2.2.2 Standard traffic loads
3.2.2.3 Construction traffic loads
3.2.2.4 Heavy load platform
3.2.2.5 Dynamic load allowance
3.2.2.5.1 Application
3.2.2.5.2 Dynamic load allowance factor
3.2.2.6 Vertical traffic loading
3.2.2.6.1 General
3.2.2.6.2 Vertical loads due to standard traffic loadings
3.2.2.7 Horizontal traffic loading
3.2.3 Live loads for culverts under railways
3.2.3.1 General
3.2.3.2 Vertical load
3.2.3.3 Horizontal load
3.2.3.4 Dynamic load allowance
3.2.3.4.1 Application
3.2.3.4.2 Dynamic load allowance factor
3.2.4 Load combinations
3.2.4.1 Load combinations for stability and ultimate strength limit states
3.2.4.2 Load combinations for serviceability limit states
3.2.5 Handling and transport loads
3.3 LOAD EFFECT ANALYSIS
3.3.1 General
3.3.2 Restrained sidesway
3.3.3 Effective width of culvert for W7/T44 wheel load
3.4 THEORETICAL STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY CALCULATIONS
3.4.1 Strength
3.4.1.1 General
3.4.1.2 Strength reduction factor
3.4.1.3 Shear strength
3.4.2 Serviceability
3.4.3 Fatigue
3.5 REINFORCEMENT DETAILING
3.5.1 General
3.5.2 Minimum flexural reinforcement
3.5.3 Distribution reinforcement
3.5.4 Crack control
4 LOAD TESTING FOR DESIGN
4.1 SCOPE
4.2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
4.2.1 General
4.2.2 Prototype proof load tests for serviceability
4.2.3 Prototype proof load tests for strength
4.2.4 Prototype failure load tests for empirical assessments of design strengths
4.2.5 Failure load tests for calibration of a strength prediction model
4.3 TEST SPECIMENS
4.3.1 General
4.3.2 Prototype test specimens
4.3.3 Test specimens to calibrate a theoretical strength prediction model
4.3.4 Properties of test specimens
4.3.4.1 General
4.3.4.2 Yield strength of reinforcement
4.3.4.3 Concrete strength
4.3.4.4 Dimensions
4.3.4.5 Cover to reinforcement
4.3.4.6 Defects
4.3.5 Strength enhancement factors
4.3.5.1 General
4.3.5.2 Mean strength enhancement factors for failure load tests
4.4 TEST LOADS
4.4.1 General
4.4.2 Proportional loading
4.4.3 Critical loading
4.4.4 Test loads for regular culverts including standard culverts
4.4.5 Test apparatus
4.5 PROTOTYPE PROOF LOAD TESTS FOR SERVICEABILITY
4.5.1 General
4.5.2 Serviceability indicators
4.5.3 Crack width
4.6 PROTOTYPE PROOF LOAD TESTS FOR ULTIMATE STRENGTH
4.6.1 Prototype proof loads for ultimate strength
4.6.2 Ultimate strength acceptance criteria based on prototype proof load tests
4.6.2.1 General
4.6.2.2 Specimens with non-identical reinforcement
4.7 FAILURE LOAD TESTS
4.7.1 Prototype failure load tests for empirical assessments of design strengths
4.7.1.1 General
4.7.1.2 Failure load statistics
4.7.1.2.1 General
4.7.1.2.2 Specimens with non-identical reinforcement
4.7.1.3 Design load capacity
4.7.2 Failure load tests for calibration of a strength prediction model
4.7.2.1 General
4.7.2.2 Selection of strength prediction models
4.7.2.3 Determination of failure load effects
4.7.2.4 Strength statistics
4.7.2.5 Design strength
4.7.3 Test capacity reduction factor
5 ROUTINE SAMPLING AND TESTING
5.1 GENERAL
5.2 REQUIRED TESTS
5.2.1 General
5.2.2 Concrete strength
5.2.3 Dimensional accuracy, and cover to reinforcement
5.2.4 Crack serviceability test load
5.3 SAMPLING FOR LOAD TESTING
5.4 COMPLIANCE
5.5 ACCEPTANCE
6 INSTALLATION
6.1 SCOPE
6.2 EXCAVATION
6.3 FOUNDATION PREPARATION
6.4 PLACING PRECAST UNITS
6.5 COMPACTION
6.6 BACKFILLING
6.7 CONSTRUCTION LOADS ON CULVERTS
APPENDIX A
A1 GENERAL
A2 INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE PURCHASER
A3 INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE MANUFACTURER
APPENDIX B
B1 SCOPE
B2 STATISTICAL SAMPLING
B3 PRODUCT CERTIFICATION
B4 SUPPLIER’S QUALITY SYSTEM
B5 OTHER MEANS OF ASSESSMENT
APPENDIX C
C1 SCOPE
C2 GENERAL
C3 DEFINITIONS
C4 STEAM DELIVERY
C5 STEAM CURING CYCLES
APPENDIX D
D1 SCOPE
D2 PRINCIPLE
D3 APPARATUS
D4 PROCEDURE
D4.1 Direct method
D4.2 Indirect method
D5 REPORT
APPENDIX E
E1 SCOPE
E2 PRINCIPLE
E3 APPARATUS
E4 PROCEDURE
E5 REPORT
APPENDIX F
APPENDIX G
APPENDIX H
H1 SCOPE
H2 APPLICATION
H3 APPARATUS
H4 SAMPLE PREPARATION
H5 GENERAL TEST CONSIDERATIONS
H5.1 Positioning of sample test unit
H5.2 Rate of loading
H5.3 Selection and measurement of crack width
H6 PROCEDURE FOR CRACK SERVICEABILITY TEST LOAD
H6.1 Procedure
H6.2 Maximum test load
H6.3 Determination of test crack width
H7 REPORT
APPENDIX I
I1 SCOPE
I2 SERVICEABILITY TEST LOADS
I3 TEST LOAD METHOD
APPENDIX J
J1 SCOPE
J2 BASIC TEST LOADS
J3 TEST LOAD ARRANGEMENT
APPENDIX K
K1 SCOPE
K2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
K2.1 Size of batch
K2.2 Inspection modes and switching rules
K2.2.1 Application
K2.2.2 Inspection modes
K2.2.3 Switching rules
K3 SAMPLING PLAN
K3.1 Sampling plan for crack load testing
Cited references in this standard
[Superseded]
Steel reinforcing bars for concrete
[Current]
Methods of testing soils for engineering purposes, Method 5.3.2: Soil compaction and density tests — Determination of the field density of a soil — Sand replacement method using a sand pouring can, with or without a volume displacer
[Current]
Methods of testing soils for engineering purposes, Method 5.4.1: Soil compaction and density tests — Compaction control test — Dry density ratio, moisture variation and moisture ratio
[Superseded]
Methods of testing soil for engineering purposes, Part C6.1: Soil classification tests — Determination of the particle size distribution of a soil — Standard method of analysis by sieving
[Superseded]
Methods of testing soil for engineering purposes, Part E3.5: Soil compaction and density tests — Determination of the field dry density of a soil — Water replacement method
Content history
[Available Superseded]
DR 94049