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AS 1375:2023


Industrial fuel-fired appliances

AS 1375:2023 specifies requirements and safety principles for the design, installation and operation of industrial appliances that involve the combustion of gas or liquid fuel and the controlled generation of combustible vapours or combustible dusts.
Published: 13/10/2023
Pages: 239
Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
About this publication
1 Scope and general
1.1 Scope
1.2 Application
1.3 Normative references
1.4 Terms and definitions
1.5 New designs and innovations
2 Appliance design and construction
2.1 General design
2.1.1 Appliance design General Risk assessment requirements Improper use
2.1.2 Ladders or steps
2.1.3 Protection of equipment
2.1.4 Accumulation within cavity walls
2.1.5 Insulation
2.1.6 Ignition hazards
2.1.7 Strength of doors
2.1.8 Prevention of accidental fires
2.1.9 Free circulation
2.1.10 Adjusting devices
2.1.11 Air inlet guards
2.1.12 Systems for heating by hot fluids
2.1.13 Electrical equipment
2.1.14 Piping, fittings and components
2.2 Materials
2.2.1 Suitability
2.2.2 Combustibility
2.3 Safety of personnel
2.3.1 Working inside appliances
2.3.2 Door handles
2.3.3 Injury or burns
2.3.4 Projections
2.3.5 Explosion reliefs
2.4 Operation and maintenance
2.4.1 Control and safety equipment
2.4.2 Automatic appliance management systems
2.4.3 Manual functions
2.4.4 Flame to be visible to maintenance personnel
2.4.5 Visual indication of the burner flame to operator
2.4.6 Removable components
2.4.7 Special tools
2.4.8 Cleaning
2.4.9 Maintenance provisions
2.5 Explosion damage protection
2.5.1 Provision of protection
2.5.2 Explosion relief operation
2.5.3 Explosion relief location
2.6 Temperature hazards
2.6.1 Components, floors and walls
2.6.2 Power failure
2.7 Instructions
2.7.1 General
2.7.2 Additional information
2.8 Marking
2.8.1 Appliance data
2.8.2 Special purpose appliance data
2.8.3 Indicators, gauges, and controls
2.8.4 Emergency stops
2.8.5 Colour code
3 Combustion system
3.1 General
3.1.1 General suitability
3.1.2 Burner — retracted or swivelled
3.1.3 Fuel remaining in burner
3.1.4 Leak tightness
3.2 Ignition system construction
3.2.1 Location and fixing
3.2.2 Spark-ignition system
3.2.3 Manual ignition systems Manually inserted gas torch Point of ignition accessibility Explosion relief for manually ignited burner
3.3 Supervision, control and safe procedures
3.3.1 Introduction
3.3.2 General requirements
3.3.3 Automatic systems
3.3.4 Manual systems
3.3.5 Interlocking controls
3.4 Starting and ignition
3.4.1 Ignition procedures
3.4.2 Performance
3.4.3 Attempted reignition
3.4.4 Ignition during purging
3.4.5 Safe-start check
3.4.6 Appliances with multiple main burners
3.4.7 Sequential ignition of multiple main burners
3.4.8 Simultaneous ignition of multiple main burners
3.5 Flame failure during operation
3.5.1 Flame supervision and failure protection
3.5.2 Flame failure response time
3.5.3 Relighting after flame failure
3.5.4 Extraneous ignition sources
3.6 Multi-fuel firing
3.6.1 Application
3.6.2 Alternative firing
3.6.3 Simultaneous firing
3.7 Shutdown procedures
3.7.1 Safety
3.7.2 Normal shutdown
3.7.3 Abnormal shutdown
3.7.4 Remote isolation
3.8 Purging
3.8.1 When to purge
3.8.2 Method of purging
3.8.3 Completeness of purging
3.8.4 Manually controlled purging
3.8.5 Proof of purge with air or inert medium
3.8.6 Dampers
3.8.7 Omission of purge
4 Control of non-fuel combustible atmospheres
4.1 General
4.2 Prevention and relief of explosions
4.2.1 Explosion prevention
4.2.2 High concentration of flammable gases and vapours
4.2.3 Explosion relief
4.2.4 Exceptions to provision of explosion relief on flammable gas and vapour appliances in which flammable materials are released
4.2.5 Exceptions to provision of explosion relief on appliances by monitoring the input of releasable flammable substances
4.2.6 Processes with flammable gases, vapours or combustible dust Provision of dilution air Recirculation air fans Monitoring of flammable gases or vapours %LEL20 for variable dilution rates
4.2.7 Appliances that operate without sources of ignition
4.3 Air dilution and purging
4.3.1 Method of providing dilution air
4.3.2 Dilution air quantities Combustible atmospheres — Dusts Combustible atmospheres — Flammable gases, vapours and gases
4.3.3 Air distribution
4.3.4 Purging
4.4 Vapour and dust removal or destruction
4.4.1 Safe disposal
4.4.2 Incineration General Incineration of high %LEL20 concentration exhaust with inerting Other incineration applications
4.4.3 Leakage of hazardous materials
5 Installation, commissioning, and operation
5.1 Installation requirements
5.1.1 Instructions
5.1.2 Defective equipment
5.1.3 Suitability for fuel and electricity
5.2 Standards for workmanship and good practice
5.2.1 Materials
5.2.2 Finish
5.2.3 Connection of services
5.3 Location and access
5.3.1 Building safety
5.3.2 Building structures
5.3.3 Safety and convenience
5.3.4 Combustible materials
5.3.5 Clearance for explosion relief General Clearance to walls and ceilings Flame ejection from explosion relief vents
5.3.6 Appliance security
5.3.7 Gas vent discharge
5.3.8 Foundations, supports
5.3.9 Lighting
5.3.10 Location of controls
5.4 Fresh air supply
5.4.1 Air supply
5.4.2 Air entries
5.4.3 Fan failure
5.5 Fuel supply system
5.5.1 Fuel shut-off
5.5.2 Gas supply system
5.5.3 Liquid fuel supply system
5.5.4 Solid fuel systems
5.6 Commissioning
5.6.1 Commissioning agent
5.6.2 Information
5.6.3 Data and reports
6 Flues (chimneys), exhaust systems and ducts
6.1 General
6.1.1 Rationale
6.1.2 Removal of products of combustion
6.1.3 Provision of exhaust systems
6.1.4 Flues separate from exhausts
6.1.5 Common exhaust systems
6.1.6 Temperature hazards and comfort
6.1.7 Terminals for flues and exhaust ducts
6.2 Flue design and construction
6.2.1 Construction
6.2.2 Performance
6.2.3 Common flues
6.2.4 Power flues
6.3 Flue supports
6.3.1 Direct-mounted flues
6.3.2 Free-standing flues
6.3.3 Guys, stays and supports
6.4 Earthing
6.5 Flue dampers
6.5.1 Damper/fuel interlock
6.5.2 Damper settings
6.6 Ducts
6.6.1 Construction
6.6.2 Joints
6.6.3 Cleaning
6.6.4 Condensation provisions
6.6.5 Dampers
7 Additional requirements for liquid fuel-firing systems
7.1 General
7.2 Liquid fuel burner starting systems
7.3 Liquid fuel pre-treatment
7.4 Controls and safety devices
7.4.1 General
7.4.2 Safety shut-off valve system requirements for liquid fuel supplies Safety shut-off devices for oil Burners with a flow rate ≤ 30 kg/h Burners with a flow rate > 30 kg/h Specific requirements for oils with viscosity exceeding 15 mm2/s at 20 °C Safety shut-off valves for fuel gases in a liquid state
Appendix A
Appendix B
B.1 General
B.2 Testing
B.3 Personnel and organization
B.4 General outline of testing procedures
B.5 Testing schedules
Appendix C
Appendix D
D.1 Methods, limiting conditions and alternatives
D.2 Notation
D.3 Calculating the critical time, Case A
D.4 Derivation of equations, Case A
D.5 Calculating the critical time, Case B
D.6 Derivation of equation, Case B
D.7 Derivation of equation, Case C
D.8 Examples
D.8.1 General
7.4.3 Case A — Using Equation D.1
D.8.2 Case A — Using Equation D.2
D.8.3 Case B — Calculation method
D.8.4 Case C — Calculation method
D.9 Scientific research background
D.10 The effect of chemical auto-ignition additives
Appendix E
E.1 Introduction
E.2 Design procedure
E.3 Symbols
E.4 Determination of maximum allowable pressure
E.4.1 Objective
E.4.2 Determination of strength
E.5 Determination of relief vent area
E.6 Determination of the opening characteristics of the relief vent closure
E.6.1 Introduction
E.6.2 Mass-gravity closure
E.6.3 Hinged panels
E.6.4 Closure that bursts to relieve pressure
E.6.5 Spring-loaded panels
E.6.6 Restriction on vent panel movement
E.7 Location of relief vents on appliances
E.8 Siting of appliances—effect of proximity of walls
E.9 Examples
Appendix F
F.1 Introduction
F.2 Calculation of dilution airflow rate
F.3 Determination of V
F.4 Determination of A
F.5 Determination of VA
F.5.1 General
F.5.2 Calculation when either V or A is unknown
F.5.3 Calculation for mixed flammable gases and vapours
F.6 Determination of C
F.6.1 General
F.6.2 Determination of C for dust
F.6.3 Simplified determination of C for flammable gas and vapour ovens
F.7 Determination of Q
F.7.1 Continuous process oven
F.7.2 Batch process ovens
F.8 Determination of F
F.9 Examples of calculations
F.9.1 Continuous oven
F.9.2 Batch oven below 120°C
F.9.3 Batch oven above 120 °C
F.10 Maximum allowable %LEL20 at the operating temperatures
F.10.1 General
F.10.2 Combustible atmospheres — Flammable gases and vapours
F.10.3 Flammable gases, vapours and combustible gases without sources of ignition
F.11 Flammable vapour drying processes
F.11.1 General
F.11.2 Example 1 — Continuous oven
F.11.3 Example 2 — Continuous oven
F.11.4 Example 3 — Fume incineration system connected to the print dryer
F.11.5 Flammable solvent mixture application
Appendix G
G.1 Lower explosion limits for flammable gases and vapours
G.1.1 General
G.1.2 Variation of LEL with temperature
G.1.3 Limiting oxygen concentration data
G.1.4 Characteristic data for various substances
G.2 Flue gases
Appendix H
H.1 Scope
H.2 Stage 1: Preliminary inspection
H.3 Stage 2: Activation — Run without fuel
H.4 Stage 3: Activation — Run with fuel
H.5 Stage 4: Operation
H.6 Stage 5: Completion
Appendix I
I.1 Introduction
I.2 HAZOP objectives
I.3 Setting up a HAZOP
I.4 Information required
I.5 HAZOP procedure
I.6 HAZOP keywords
I.6.1 Keywords (parameters)
I.6.1.1 Primary keywords (parameters)
I.6.1.2 Secondary keywords (guidewords)
I.7 HAZOP study team composition
I.8 Record keeping
I.9 Benefits of HAZOPs
Appendix J
Appendix K
Appendix L
Appendix M
Appendix N
N.1 General
N.2 Example qualitative risk assessment
N.3 Guideline example
Appendix O
Appendix P
P.1 General
P.2 Need for a fitness-for-purpose assessment
P.3 Approach
P.4 Explosion, fire, asphyxiation and catastrophic failure
P.5 Non-conformance to this document
P.6 Review and assessment of evidence
P.7 Contents of the fitness-for-purpose assessment
P.7.1 General
P.7.2 Scope
P.7.3 Appliance, component, equipment, its installation and its application
P.7.3.1 General
P.7.3.2 Description
P.7.3.3 Function of the appliance or component and its installation including the location
P.7.3.4 Original equipment manufacturer’s specifications
P.7.3.5 Conformance to standards
P.7.3.6 Documents
P.7.3.7 Product sample
P.7.3.8 Appliance, component or equipment and its installation nameplate
P.7.4 Training of personnel
P.7.5 Elements of the report
Appendix Q
Q.1 General
Q.2 Visual inspection
Q.3 General condition monitoring
Q.3.1 General deterioration characteristics
Q.3.2 Twists
Q.3.3 Kinks
Q.3.4 Broken braids
Q.3.5 Chafing and cuts
Q.3.6 Leakage
Q.3.7 Corroded
Q.4 Blistered or bulged
Q.4.1 General
Q.4.2 Swelling or softness
Q.4.3 Contaminated/crazed/cracked
Q.4.4 Brittle
Q.4.5 Contamination
Q.5 Confirm correct installation
Q.5.1 General
Q.5.2 Not compressed or extended axially
Q.5.3 Do not torque during installation or maintenance
Q.5.4 No hose movement allowed in multiple planes
Q.5.5 No sharp bends
Q.5.6 Minimum bend radius to be maintained
Appendix R
R.1 Scope
R.2 General
R.3 Hazards
R.4 Safety
R.5 Enclosed flares — Additional recommendations
R.6 Flare clearances and location
Appendix S
S.1 General
S.2 Location of sample points
S.3 Concentration monitoring systems
S.4 Analyser types
S.5 Calibration
S.6 Instrument calibration factors
Appendix T
T.1 General
T.2 Properties of hydrogen, methane and propane
T.3 Hazards
T.4 Combustion safety
T.5 Flame properties
T.6 Ignition
T.7 Flame detection
T.8 Transition fuels
T.9 Blend leakage rates
Cited references in this standard
UL 21
LP-Gas Hose
BS EN 16617
Pipework — Corrugated metal hose assemblies for combustible gas — Performance requirements, testing and marking
BS EN 1762
Rubber hoses and hose assemblies for liquefied petroleum gas, LPG (liquid or gaseous phase), and natural gas up to 25 bar (2,5 MPa) - Specification
ASTM F1120-87
Standard specification for circular metallic bellows type expansion joints for piping applications
Safety and control devices for oil burners and oil-burning appliances — Particular requirements — Part 1: Automatic and semi-automatic valves
Content history
ASTM D2170/D2170M-18
DR AS 1375:2022
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