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AS 1210-2010


Pressure vessels

Sets out minimum requirements for the materials, design, manufacture, testing, inspection, certification, documentation and dispatch of fired and unfired pressure vessels constructed in ferrous or non-ferrous metals by welding, brazing, casting, forging, or cladding and lining and includes the application of non-integral fittings required for safe and proper functioning of pressure vessels. Also specifies requirements for non-metallic vessels and metallic vessels with non-metallic linings.
Published: 19/10/2010
Pages: 413
Table of contents
Cited references
Content history
Table of contents
About this publication
1 Scope and general
1.1 Scope
1.2 Objective and performance criteria
1.2.1 Objective of the Standard
1.2.2 Performance requirements
1.3 Application
1.4 Interpretation of Standard
1.5 New designs, materials and manufacturing methods
1.6 Classes of vessel construction
1.7 Application of vessel classes
1.7.1 General
1.7.2 Mixed classes of construction
1.8 Definitions
1.9 Units
1.10 Notation
1.11 Purchaser and manufacturer
1.12 Referenced documents
2 Materials
2.1 Material specifications
2.1.1 General
2.1.2 Grades
2.2 Standard components and integrally clad metals
2.3 Alternative material and component specifications
2.3.1 General
2.3.2 Alternative product form
2.3.3 Use of structural and similar quality steels for pressure parts
2.3.4 Specifically tested materials
2.4 Material identification
2.5 Limits of application of materials and components
2.5.1 Maximum pressure limits
2.5.2 Temperature limits
2.5.3 Service limits Cast iron Low melting point metals Corrosion resistance
2.5.4 Structural attachments and stiffening rings
2.6 Material for low temperature service
2.6.1 General
2.6.2 Selection of material General Thin-walled carbon and carbon-manganese steel tubes (seamless and welded) Thin materials Metals not requiring impact testing Use of fracture mechanics Welded material
2.6.3 Minimum temperatures Minimum operating temperature (Tmin) ∗ Material design minimum temperature (TR) for Group A to E steels TR for metals other than Group A to E steels
2.6.4 Material reference thickness
2.6.5 Impact testing When required Test method Test specimens Impact test requirements Impact test requirements for sub-sized specimens Retests
2.6.6 Fracture mechanics analysis General Analysis Material tests Required fracture toughness Non-destructive examination methods
2.6.7 Non-metallic materials
2.7 Material for high temperature service
2.7.1 General
2.7.2 Selection of materials for high temperature service
2.7.3 Valves and similar components
2.7.4 Brazing and soldering materials
2.7.5 Steels
2.8 Non-destructive testing of materials
2.9 Materials for corrosive service
3 Design
3.1 General
3.1.1 Main design requirements
3.1.2 Design responsibility
3.1.3 Design methods
3.1.4 Design against failure
3.1.5 Design against excessive deflection
3.1.6 Design criteria for Class 1H and 2H vessels
3.2 Design conditions
3.2.1 Design and calculation pressures Design pressure of vessel Calculation pressure of a vessel part External pressure Design pressure for liquefied gas vessels
3.2.2 Design and service temperatures Design temperature for other than clad vessels Design temperature for clad or lined vessels Temperature fluctuations from normal conditions Maximum service temperature for liquefied gas vessels
3.2.3 Design loadings
3.2.4 Corrosion, (including all forms of wastage) General Corrosion allowance Dissimilar metal corrosion Linings Corrosion data
3.2.5 Low temperature service
3.2.6 Vessel life General Design lifetime in creep (high temperature) range
3.2.7 Change in design conditions
3.3 Design strengths
3.3.1 Design tensile strength (f) General Design tensile strength for clad and lined material
3.3.2 Reduced design tensile strength for low temperature service
3.3.3 Design compressive strength (fc)
3.3.4 Design shear strength (fs)
3.3.5 Design bearing strength (fbearing)
3.3.6 Young’s modulus (modulus of elasticity) (E)
3.3.7 Design bending strength
3.4 Thickness of vessel wall
3.4.1 Minimum calculated thickness
3.4.2 Thickness allowances Design thickness Further fabrication allowances
3.4.3 Minimum nominal thickness of pressure parts
3.5 Welded and brazed joints
3.5.1 Welded joints Types of welded joints Number of joints Location of joints Design of welded joints General Butt welds Fillet welds Plugwelds and slotwelds Welded joints subject to bending stresses Welded joints with backing strip Corner and nozzle welded joints Stud welds Acceptable joint preparation Application of welded joints Welded joint efficiency, η Butt welding between plates of unequal thickness
3.5.2 Riveted joints
3.5.3 Brazed joints General Strength of brazed joints Corrosion allowance Brazed joint efficiency Application of brazing filler metal Permissible types of joints Joint clearance
3.5.4 Soldered joints
3.6 Ligament efficiency
3.7 Cylindrical and spherical shells subject to internal pressure and combined loadings
3.7.1 General
3.7.2 Notation
3.7.3 Cylindrical shells
3.7.4 Spherical shells
3.7.5 Vertical cylindrical vessels under combined loading (for internal or external, or both pressures) 
3.7.6 Horizontal cylindrical vessels under combined loading
3.7.7 Conical shells subject to internal pressure
3.8 Thick-walled cylindrical and spherical shells subject to internal pressure
3.9 Cylindrical and spherical shells subject to external pressure
3.9.1 General
3.9.2 Notation
3.9.3 Cylindrical shells
3.9.4 Spherical shells
3.9.5 Shells subject to external pressure and combined loadings
3.9.6 Stiffening rings for cylindrical shells subject to external pressure Second moment of area Form of stiffening rings Local spaces in stiffening rings Attachment of stiffening rings Strength of attachment welds
3.10 Conical ends and reducers subject to internal pressure
3.10.1 General
3.10.2 Notation
3.10.3 Conical sections
3.10.4 Attachment of cone to cylinder
3.10.5 Transition knuckles
3.10.6 Reinforcement General Notation Reinforcement at large end of cone to cylinder Reinforcement at small end of cone to cylinder
3.11 Conical ends and reducers subject to external pressure
3.11.1 General
3.11.2 Minimum calculated thickness
3.12 Dished ends subject to internal pressure
3.12.1 General
3.12.2 Notation
3.12.3 Shape limitations
3.12.4 Openings in ends
3.12.5 Thickness of ends Ellipsoidal ends Torispherical ends Spherical ends Straight flange on ends
3.12.6 Attachment of ends
3.13 Dished ends subject to external pressure
3.13.1 General
3.13.2 Notation
3.13.3 Ellipsoidal ends
3.13.4 Spherical and torispherical ends
3.13.5 Attachment of ends
3.14 Dished ends—Bolted spherical type
3.14.1 General
3.14.2 Notation
3.14.3 Ends subject to internal pressure (concave to pressure)
3.14.4 Ends subject to external pressure (convex to pressure)
3.15 Unstayed flat ends and covers
3.15.1 General
3.15.2 Notation
3.15.3 Minimum calculated thickness for circular ends
3.15.4 Minimum calculated thickness for non-circular ends
3.15.5 Internally fitted doors General Thickness of one-plate doors Thickness of two-plate doors Bolting Bridges or dogs
3.16 Stayed flat ends and surfaces
3.16.1 General
3.16.2 Notation
3.16.3 Plate thickness
3.16.4 Minimum pitch of staytubes
3.16.5 Staybars and staytubes Material Dimensions Area supported by stay Staybars—axial drilling Attachment Staybar supports
3.16.6 Gusset and other stays
3.17 Flat tubeplates
3.17.1 General
3.17.2 Not allocated.
3.17.3 Not allocated.
3.17.4 Not allocated.
3.17.5 Not allocated.
3.17.6 Not allocated.
3.17.7 Not allocated.
3.17.8 Tubeplate ligament Minimum ligament Tubes welded to tubeplate
3.17.9 Tube pitch
3.17.10 Tube holes Diameter and finish Location in welded joints
3.17.11 Tube-to-tubeplate attachment General Not allocated Expansion of tubes Strength of attachment of tube Welded attachment of tubes
3.17.12 Attachment of tubeplate to shell
3.18 Openings and reinforcements
3.18.1 General
3.18.2 Notation
3.18.3 Shape of opening
3.18.4 Size of openings In cylindrical, conical and spherical shells In dished ends In flat ends
3.18.5 Location of openings Other than unreinforced openings in accordance with Clause 3.18.6 Orientation of non-circular openings In or adjacent to welds
3.18.6 Unreinforced openings Single openings Multiple openings
3.18.7 Reinforcement of openings in shells and dished ends General Reinforcement area required in shells, dished ends and cones subject to internal pressure—single openings Reinforcement required in shells and dished ends subject to external pressure—single openings Reinforcement required in shells and dished ends subject to alternate internal and external pressures—single openings Reinforcement of multiple openings More than two adjacent openings Number and arrangement unlimited Reinforcement by thicker section Series of openings
3.18.8 Flanged openings in dished ends Made by inward or outward flanging Width of bearing surface Shell or end thickness to be maintained Flange thickness Flange cross-section
3.18.9 Reinforcement required for openings in flat ends Application Opening less than half of end diameter or shortest span Opening more than half of end diameter or shortest span Increased thickness
3.18.10 Limits of available reinforcement Boundaries of area for reinforcement Limits of reinforcement parallel to vessel wall Limits of reinforcement normal to vessel wall Reinforcing metal
3.18.11 Strength of reinforcement General Requirements
3.19 Connections and nozzles
3.19.1 General
3.19.2 Strength of attachment
3.19.3 Welded nozzle connections and reinforcement Application Methods of attachment Hole for inserted connections Tell-tale holes Strength of welded connections
3.19.4 Screwed and socket welded connections General Pipe threads Size limitation—Threaded joints Size limitation—Socket welded connections Temperature and pressure limits Sealing Length of thread engagement Attachment
3.19.5 Not allocated.
3.19.6 Studded connections General Types of connection Studs Stud holes
3.19.7 Expanded connections Application Methods of attachment Tube holes Expansion
3.19.8 Brazed connections
3.19.9 Special connections
3.19.10 Nozzles Design basis Nozzle thickness Inclination Design for external loads
3.20 Inspection openings
3.20.1 General
3.20.2 Not allocated.
3.20.3 Not allocated.
3.20.4 General purpose vessels
3.20.5 Vessels not subject to corrosion
3.20.6 Vessels not requiring openings
3.20.7 Manholes for vessels containing an unsafe atmosphere
3.20.8 Alternative openings
3.20.9 Size of openings
3.20.10 Design of inspection openings
3.20.11 Ingress to vessels
3.21 Bolted flanged connections
3.21.1 General
3.21.2 Types of flanged connection
3.21.3 Attachment of flanges Types of attachment Strength of attachment Limits of use of welded flange attachments Limits of use of threaded flanges
3.21.4 Basis of design General Operating conditions Gasket seating conditions
3.21.5 Materials and components General Flange materials Flange face surface Bolting General Bolts, screws, studs, stud-bolts and clamp bolts Nuts Washers Threads Size Stud attachment Gaskets
3.21.6 Narrow-face flanges with ring-type gaskets General Notation Circular flange types Bolt-forces Bolt-forces for non-self-energizing type gaskets Bolt-forces for self-energizing type gaskets Total required and actual bolt areas Am and Ab Flange design bolt-forces W Flange moments Calculation of flange stresses Flange design strengths Flange rigidity Finite element analysis of flanges
3.21.7 Narrow-face split loose flanges
3.21.8 Narrow-face non-circular shaped flanges with circular bore
3.21.9 Flanges subject to external pressure Design for external pressure Design for external and internal pressure
3.21.10 Flat-face flanges with metal-to-metal contact outside the bolt circle
3.21.11 Flanges with full-face gaskets General Notation Circular flange types Bolt forces Required bolt-forces Total required and actual bolt areas (Am and Ab) Flange design bolt-force (W) Flange moments Calculation of flange stresses Flange design strength
3.21.12 Reverse flange General Notation Flange moments for reverse flanges with ring-type gaskets Flange moments for reverse flanges with full-face gaskets Calculation of flange stresses Flange design strength
3.22 Pipes and tubes
3.22.1 General
3.22.2 Thickness
3.22.3 Attachment
3.23 Jacketed vessels
3.23.1 General
3.23.2 Types of jacketed vessels
3.23.3 Design of jacket shells and jacket ends
3.23.4 Notation
3.23.5 Design of jacket closures
3.23.6 Design of penetrations through jackets
3.23.7 Design of partial jackets (excluding troughs) General Application
3.23.8 Jacketed troughs
3.24 Vessel supports
3.24.1 General
3.24.2 Supporting members
3.24.3 Supports for vertical vessels Bracket support Column support Skirt support Stool support Skirt or stool inspection opening
3.24.4 Supports for horizontal vessels
3.24.5 Supports for vessels subject to external pressure
3.24.6 Supports for jacketed vessels
3.24.7 Attachment of supports
3.24.8 Access for inspection
3.25 Attached structures and equipment
3.25.1 Structures—General
3.25.2 Internal structures
3.25.3 General method of attachment
3.26 Transportable vessels
3.26.1 General
3.26.2 Types and application
3.26.3 General design Class of construction Design pressure Openings Loadings Structural integrity  Design by calculation or finite element analysis Combined stresses  Loads for use in the finite element analysis design of transportable vessels Static strength analysis  Fatigue strength analysis
3.26.4 Materials General Material for vessels with lethal and very toxic (e.g. chlorine, sulfur dioxide and ammonia) contents Minimum thickness
3.26.5 Corrosion allowance
3.26.6 Welds
3.26.7 Heat treatment
3.26.8 Protection against damage
3.26.9 Stability and clearances
3.26.10 Vessel supports General Pads Lugs
3.26.11 Rear impact protection
3.26.12 Guards for vessel fittings
3.26.13 Lifting lugs
3.26.14 Attachment of structures
3.26.15 Pressure relief valves
3.27 Quick-actuating closures
3.27.1 Types of closures
3.27.2 Design requirements
3.27.3 Swing bolt closures
3.28 Metallic expansion joints
3.29 Pressure vessels for human occupancy
3.29.1 Static service
3.29.2 Non-static and general service
3.30 Buried and mounded storage vessels
3.30.1 Design conditions
3.30.2 Vessel support
3.30.3 Design loads
3.30.4 Material
3.30.5 Pipe connections
3.30.6 Nozzles
3.30.7 Corrosion allowance
3.30.8 Coating and cathodic protection systems
3.31 Vessels of non-circular cross-section
3.32 Fired pressure vessels
3.32.1 Scope and application
3.32.2 Construction Standards General Water heaters Electrically heated calorifiers Fired process heaters Fired LP Gas vaporizers Fired organic fluid and vaporizers
3.32.3 Design features
3.32.4 Welded joints subjected to heating
3.32.5 Safety controls and devices
3.32.6 Valves, gauges and other fittings
3.33 Vessels with increased design strength at low temperature
3.34 Plate heat exchangers
4 Manufacture
4.1 General
4.1.1 Requirements
4.1.2 Manufacture and workmanship
4.1.3 Competence of manufacturer
4.1.4 Material identification and marking
4.2 Welded construction
4.2.1 General welding requirements
4.2.2 Welding personnel Competence of welding supervisors Competence of welders
4.3 Clad and lined construction
4.4 Riveted construction
4.5 Brazed construction
4.5.1 General
4.5.2 Brazing personnel Supervisors, brazers and brazing operators Identification Record
4.6 Forged construction
4.7 Cast construction
5 Testing and qualification
5.1 General
5.1.1 Scope of Section
5.1.2 Responsibilities and facilities for testing and inspection
5.2 Welding and brazing qualification and production test plates
5.2.1 Welding and brazing procedure
5.2.2 Welded production test plates General Number of test plates for single vessels Number of test plates for multiple vessels Welding and testing of test plates
5.3 Non-destructive examination
5.4 Not allocated
5.5 Not allocated
5.6 Not allocated
5.7 Not allocated
5.8 Not allocated
5.9 Not allocated
5.10 Hydrostatic tests
5.10.1 General
5.10.2 Test pressure Single-wall vessels designed for internal pressure Single-wall vessels designed for external pressure Multiple-chamber vessels (including jacketed types) Cast iron and SG iron vessels Coated vessels Tubular heat exchangers Clad vessels Lined vessels
5.10.3 Site retests
5.10.4 Tests after weld repairs
5.10.5 Hydrostatic test procedure and requirements
5.10.6 Reporting of results
5.10.7 Exemption from hydrostatic test
5.11 Pneumatic tests
5.11.1 General
5.11.2 Vessel quality
5.11.3 Test pressure
5.12 Proof hydrostatic tests
5.12.1 General
5.12.2 Types of test
5.12.3 Test arrangements Hydrostatic testing Prior pressure Safety Witnessing of tests Duplicate vessels Retests
5.12.4 Strain gauge tests Strain gauges Location of gauges Application of pressure Strain and pressure readings Plotting of strain Maximum test pressure Design pressure Determination of actual yield strength Interpretation of results Use of models for strain measurement
5.12.5 Brittle coating tests
5.12.6 Displacement tests Displacement measurement Application of pressure Displacement and pressure readings Plotting of strain Maximum test pressure Design pressure
5.12.7 Bursting tests General Design pressure
5.13 Leak test
5.13.1 General
5.13.2 Test methods
5.13.3 Tightness of applied linings
5.13.4 Preliminary leak test
5.13.5 Sensitive leak test
5.14 Helium leak test
5.15 Not allocated.
5.16 Not allocated.
5.17 Special examinations and tests
6 Conformity assessment
6.1 General
6.2 Assessment
6.3 Certification of quality systems
6.4 Evidence of conformity assessment
7 Marking and documentation
7.1 Marking
7.2 Methods of marking
7.3 Location of marking
7.4 Size and type of marking
7.5 Multi-chamber vessels
7.6 Witnessing of marking
7.7 Documentation
8 Protective devices and systems
8.1 General requirements
8.1.1 General
8.1.2 Design, manufacture and connection for protective devices and fittings
8.2 Vessels requiring pressure-relief devices
8.2.1 Pressure relief—General requirements
8.2.2 Pressure relief for fire conditions
8.2.3 Liquid full vessels
8.2.4 Interconnected vessels and chambers
8.2.5 Systems of limited or reduced pressure
8.2.6 Lethal fluids and other special fluids
8.2.7 Safety instrumented systems (SIS) General Requirements for safety instrumented systems
8.3 Types of pressure-relief devices
8.4 Pressure-relief valves
8.4.1 Application
8.4.2 Design, manufacture testing and marking
8.4.3 Type and minimum bore
8.4.4 Pilot operation
8.4.5 Easing gear
8.4.6 Gumming and thermal effects
8.4.7 Drainage
8.4.8 Vapour tightness
8.5 Bursting discs and other non-reclosing pressure-relief devices
8.5.1 Application
8.5.2 Design, manufacture, testing and marking
8.5.3 Discs located between pressure-relief valve and vessel
8.5.4 Disc located on discharge side of pressure relief valve (see Note 2)
8.5.5 Other non-reclosing pressure relief of devices
8.6 Required discharge capacity of pressure-relief devices
8.6.1 Aggregate capacity
8.6.2 Aggregate capacity for fire conditions General Notation Fire relief of vessels containing liquefied gas or liquid Fire relief of vessels containing gas or vapour
8.6.3 Capacity for burst tube
8.6.4 Capacity for calorifiers and similar vessels
8.6.5 Certified capacity of safety and relief valves
8.6.6 Liquid relief capacity of pressure-relief devices
8.6.7 Capacity for refrigerated or vacuum-insulated vessels
8.7 Pressure setting of pressure-relief devices
8.7.1 Pressure-relief valves
8.7.2 Bursting discs
8.7.3 Pressure-relief devices for fire conditions
8.7.4 Superimposed back pressure
8.7.5 Minimum set pressure
8.8 Installation of pressure-relief devices
8.8.1 Safety valves and non-reclosing devices
8.8.2 Relief valves
8.8.3 Inlet connection
8.8.4 Stop valves between pressure-relief device and vessel
8.9 Discharge from pressure-relief devices
8.9.1 Safe discharge
8.9.2 Discharge to atmosphere
8.9.3 Discharge pipes
8.9.4 Common discharge pipes
8.9.5 Drainage
8.9.6 Bonnet and pilot valve venting
8.9.7 Noise
8.10 Vacuum-relief devices
8.10.1 Application
8.10.2 Design, manufacture, testing and marking
8.10.3 Required capacity and setting General Sizing of vacuum breakers for feedwater deaerators
8.10.4 Installation
8.11 Fusible plugs
8.11.1 Definition
8.11.2 Application
8.11.3 Design, manufacture, testing and marking
8.11.4 Required discharge capacity
8.11.5 Required yield temperature
8.11.6 Installation
8.12 Protection against operation outside design temperature limits
8.13 Pressure gauges
8.13.1 Application
8.13.2 Type and size
8.13.3 Connection
8.14 Liquid level indicators
8.14.1 General
8.14.2 Tubular glass indicators
8.15 Isolation fittings
8.16 Drainage
8.16.1 Provision for drainage
8.16.2 Discharge
8.17 Vents
8.18 Protection of valves and fittings
8.18.1 Location for inspection and maintenance
8.18.2 Protection against interference
8.18.3 Protection against damage
9 Provisions for dispatch
9.1 Cleaning
9.2 Protection
9.3 Associated fittings and components
10 Non-metallic vessels
10.1 Scope
10.2 General requirements
Appendix A
A1 General
A2 Notation
A3 Determination of design tensile strength
Appendix B
B1 Design strengths—Materials
B2 Design strengths—Bolting
B3 Young’s modulus
B4 Linear thermal expansion
Appendix C
C1 Introduction
C2 Designer’s role
C3 Risk management system
C3.1 System
C3.2 Hazards
C3.3 Assessment
C3.4 Control
C3.5 Record
C3.6 Supply of information
C4 Manufacturer’s role
Appendix D
D1 General
D2 Data on corrosion resistance
D3 Suggested good practice regarding corrosion allowance
D3.1 General
D3.2 Predictable rate
D3.3 Unpredictable rate
D3.4 Determination of probable corrosion rate
D3.5 No corrosive effect
D3.6 Corrosion inspection
Appendix E
E1 General
E2 Design
E3 Verification of design
E4 Inspections
E5 Testing
E6 Dispatch
E7 Certification and documentation
Appendix F
Appendix G
Appendix H
H1 General
H2 Stress intensity classification
H3 Examples of stresses and their classifications
H4 Tresca or maximum shear stress criterion
H4.1 General
H4.2 Application of the Tresca Criterion
H5 Von Mises criterion
Appendix I
I1 General
I2 Strength design based on stresses from linear analyses
I2.1 Designs reliant on linear FEA
I2.2 Yield criteria
I2.3 Meshing technique
I2.4 Consistency and credibility of results
I2.5 Stress distribution
I2.6 Stress evaluation
I3 Strength design based on strains from non-linear analyses
I3.1 General
I3.2 Requirements
I3.3 Stress/strain properties
I4 Buckling
I5 Vibrations
Appendix J
J1 General
J2 Importance level determination
J3 Annual probability of exceedance
J4 Wind design loads
J4.1 Windloads—Design wind speed
J4.2 Design wind pressure
J4.3 Design wind forces
J4.4 Site exposure multipliers
J5 Seismic design loads
J5.1 General
J5.2 Design data
J5.3 Design practice
J6 Snow design loads
J7 Combined loads
Appendix K
Appendix L
L1 Scope and application of Appendix
L2 Materials
L2.1 General
L2.2 Material specifications
L2.3 Alternative material and component specifications
L2.4 Material for high temperature service
L2.5 Non-metallic materials
L3 Design
L3.1 General
L3.2 Design conditions
L3.3 Design strengths
L3.4 Welded and brazed joints
L3.5 Cylindrical and spherical shells subject to internal pressure and combined loadings
L3.5.1 General
L3.5.2 Vertical cylindrical vessels under combined loading
L3.5.3 Horizontal cylindrical vessels under combined loading
L3.6 Cylindrical and spherical shells subject to external pressure
L3.6.1 General
L3.6.2 Notation
L3.6.3 Stiffening rings for cylindrical shells subject to external pressure
L3.7 Dished ends subject to internal pressure
L3.8 Openings and reinforcements
L3.8.1 General
L3.8.2 Location of openings
L3.8.3 Unreinforced openings
L3.8.4 Reinforcement of single openings in shells and dished ends
L3.9 Connections and nozzles
L3.10 Jacketed vessels
L3.11 Vessel supports
L3.12 Attached structures and equipment
L3.13 Transportable vessels
L3.14 Design against impact or collision
L3.15 Vessels with increased design strength at low temperature
L4 Manufacture
L4.1 General
L4.2 Welded construction—General welding requirements
L4.3 Brazed construction
L5 Testing and qualification
L5.1 General
L5.2 Non-destructive examination
L5.3 Hydrostatic tests
L5.4 Special examinations and tests
L6 Marking
L6.1 General
L6.2 Marking required
L6.3 Reports
Appendix M
M1 General
M2 Design features
M3 Definitions
M4 Fatigue life
M4.1 Need for fatigue analysis
M4.2 Equations for fatigue design curves in Figure M1
M4.2.1 Stress range for variable amplitude loading—full curves in Figure M1
M4.2.2 Stress range for steels with constant amplitude loads—that is, dashed curves on Figure M1
M4.3 Basis of Sr–N curves
M4.4 Stress cycles of different magnitude
M5 Methods of analysis
M6 Adjustments
M6.1 General
M6.2 High triaxiality
M6.3 Out of phase stresses
M6.4 Young’s Modulus adjustment
M6.5 Corrosion fatigue
M6.6 In-service inspection
M6.7 Non-destructive examination
M6.8  Enhancement of fatigue performance of weld toes
M6.8.1 General
M6.8.2 Beneficial effect
M6.8.3 Underflushing
M6.9 Thickness
M6.10  Increased tensile strength
M7 Detailed fatigue analysis
M7.1 Analysis required
M7.2 Notation
M7.3 Method for detailed fatigue analysis
M8 Fatigue analysis of bolts
M8.1 Need for fatigue analysis
M8.2 Methods of fatigue analysis
M8.3 Curves for high strength bolting
M8.4 Cumulative damage
M9 Alternative methods of cyclic life determination
M9.1 General
M9.2 Fatigue life determined by testing
M10 Determination of fatigue strength reduction factors
M11 Cyclic thermal stresses
M12 Vibrations
M13 Creep fatigue
M14 Castings
Appendix N
N1 General
N2 Specification of external loads
N3 Evaluation methods
N3.1 General
N3.2 Evaluation using past experience
N3.3 Evaluation using finite element analysis (FEA)
N3.4 Evaluation using PD 5500, Appendix G
N3.5 Evaluation using WRC 107 with WRC 297
N3.6 Evaluation using other manual analytical methods
Appendix O
Appendix P
P1 General
P2 Bodies, personnel and functions
P3 Guidance of competency
Appendix Q
Appendix R
Appendix ZZ
ZZ1 General
ZZ2 Failure mode summary
ZZ3 Detailed technical requirements checklist
Amendment control sheet
Cited references in this standard
Pressure equipment — Hazard levels
Structural design actions, Part 0: General principles
Pipe threads where pressure-tight joints are made on the threads, Part 1: Dimensions, tolerances and designation
Functional safety — Safety instrumented systems for the process industry sector
Corrigendum to Unified black hexagon bolts, screws and nuts (UNC and UNF threads) and plain washers — Heavy series
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